SIQUIJOR: THE MYSTICAL ISLAND AND HEALING PARADISE

Siquijor is a small island province1 of the Philippines located in the Central Visayas2 Region (Region3 VII)4. The people are called Siquijodnons.

Geographically, Cebu is to the north, Negros to the west, Bohol to the northeast, Camiguin5 to the east, and to the south, across the Bohol Sea, is Mindanao.

Siquijor is so intriguing, mysterious, exciting to explore – the reasons why I included it in my local travel bucket list. We arrived in this island a bit hesitant, yet ready to explore its natural beauty and culture. A couple of my friends who knew I would visit this island warned me about its reputation of sorcery and magic, even if they themselves have not visited it. We heard stories about what happened to a couple of tourists who were physically affected during and after their visits, but all these needed to be verified. Talk about shady reputation!

We sought bloggers and vloggers, and became assured and convinced with what we read and saw, so we were bent on pursuing this vacation. However, to be on the safe side, my companions and I made a pact not to say anything negative, never to point towards certain places or things, and to just enjoy the view and destinations.

Here are 20 facts about Siquijor, the province1:

1. It is the smallest province in the Central Visayas Region2, and the third smallest province in the Philippines in terms of population and land area, next to Camiguin5 and Batanes6 (the smallest) at 327 sq.k. or 126 sq.mi., and a coastline 102 km (63 mi) long.

2. This province has 6 municipalities7: Enrique Villanueva, Larena, Lazi, Maria, San Juan, and Siquijor (the capital, and yes, it is also called Siquijor6). See a related post: Now You Know: THE SIX MUNICIPALITIES OF SIQUIJOR

3. This island provinceis indeed mysterious! First is the origin of the island. They say the island surfaced from the depths of the ocean during a great storm which once engulfed the region3. This storm was followed by a strong earthquake that shook the earth and sea. Amidst the lightning and thunder, an island rose from the depths of the ocean and became Siquijor island. In fact, how can you explain that during modern times, farmers have unraveled giant shell casings under farm plots?

4. Siquijor is commonly called The Mystical Island and is associated with mystic traditions. It is widely believed since the olden times that the natives of this island were men of mystery and magic who can conjure and control spirits. There are folk healers whose practices include spiritualism, along with the preparation of brews and herbal concoctions for love and health problems.

5. It has a long-time reputation as a place of magic, sorcery, mystical traditions. It is also well known for its festivals that focus on healing rituals where incantations are sung, while the old folks make potions out of herbs, roots, insects, and tree barks. However, when we visited the island for a day on March 2019, we only saw love potions sold in small bottles and mystic wine in large bottles, along with voodoo dolls and other local souvenirs.

The Siquijodnons are predominantly Roman Catholics yet their island province1 is still known as The Mystical Island. Healers and herbalists all over the country annually come together in this island during Holy Week to perform healing, and to participate in the preparation of concoctions made from a variety of tree barks, roots, herbs, insects and other ingredients. These are gathered from the forests, sea, caves, and cemeteries during the 7 Fridays of the Lenten season. The resulting brews are deemed to have healing powers. Thus, it is also called The Healing Paradise.

Perhaps, a tourist needs to visit this island during Holy Week to witness this side of the culture of Siquijor.

6. During the Spanish colonial period in the Philippines, the Spaniards called Siquijor Isla del Fuego (Island of Fire) because the island gave off an eerie glow at night from the great swarms of fireflies that lived in the branches of the abundant tugas or molave8. See my post: Now You Know – SIQUIJOR: ITS LEGEND, HISTORY, TRADITIONS, AND BELIEFS to know more about this island’s legend, tradition, history and beliefs.

7. Each municipalityshowcases centuries-old Catholic churches, amidst the mystical traditions of the early Siquijodnons way before the Spaniards arrived. The province1 has some of the oldest churches in the Philippines: Our Lady of Divine Providence Church (Santa Maria Church) in the municipality  of Maria, established in 1887; Our Lady of Mount Carmel Church (Mount Carmel Church) in the municipality of Enrique Villanueva; Augustine Parish (Macapilay Church) in the municipality  of San Juan, built in 1863; St. Francis of Assisi Church (Siquijor Church) in the municipality  of Siquijor, established in 1783; St. Isidore the Farmer Church (Lazi Church), or San Isidro Labrador Parish Church in the municipality  of Lazi, founded in 1857 (see a related post: SAN ISIDRO LABRADOR PARISH CHURCH AND CONVENT, SIQUIJOR); and, Saint Vincent Ferrer Church (Larena Church) in the municipality  of Larena, erected in 1836. See a related post featuring all these churches: Now You Know: SIQUIJOR’S 6 ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCHES

Today, this province1 showcases the unique Philippine culture of blending Catholicism with traditional religious practices – a major part of its people’s cultural heritage, identity and character.

8. This coralline island is predominantly hilly, with many places reaching the sea, producing steep cliffs, and creating breathtaking panoramic views, perfect for your photos! It is surrounded by limestone materials, mangroves, coral reefs, and a coastline which boasts of white sand beaches that stretch up to 102 km. See related posts about two beaches I visited: SERENE AND SPONTANEOUS SALAGDOONG BEACH, SIQUIJOR and PALITON BEACH: THE LITTLE BORACAY OF SIQUIJOR.

9. Siquijor’s central portion is mountainous. The highest point of the island is Mount Malabahoc, locally known as Mount Bandila-an, at 628 meters (2,060 ft) in elevation. One can still see fossils and shells on this mountain.

10. This island provinceis proud of its 400-year old Balete9 tree, located in Barangay10 Campalanas, in the town of Lazi. That is one of the oldest trees in the country and what makes it unique is the spring water flowing from its roots, which was turned into a natural fish spa for tourists. See a related post: ENCHANTING 400-YEAR-OLD BALETE TREE AND FISH SPA, SIQUIJOR

11. The island has wonderful waterfalls like the Cambugahay Falls in the town of Lazi which I was able to visit (see a related post: TAKE A TARZAN-LIKE DIVE AT CAMBUGAHAY FALLS, SIQUIJOR!). Cangbangag Falls, in the town of Larena, and Lugnason Falls, in the town of San Juan, are two other falls you can visit.

Cambugahay falls-labelled                                                            Cambugahay Falls

12. I was surprised to know that it has 46 caves: 4 in the town of Enrique Villanueva, 17 in Lazi, 6 in Maria, 5 in San Juan, and 12 in Siquijor. The only town without a cave is Larena (based on my research).

13. This island provincewas dubbed as the “Marine Paradise of Central Visayas4” after it was proclaimed a marine reserve11 and tourist destination in 1978 by Proclamation No. 1810. In line with this, the Philippine Tourism Authority (PTA) was charged with converting it into a principal tourist zone.

14. Fishing is the prime occupation, with Bohol Strait, Mindanao Sea and Siquijor Sea as the chief fishing areas. Fishponds are 15 hectares long, while swamp lands cover 71 hectares.

15. The island has 3 seaports: Larena (the biggest and main entry point of the province), Lazi and Siquijor.

16. The main spoken language is Cebuano, with English often used as a second language. Filipino is understood but rarely used and some Spanish words are spoken and understood.

17. The coral reefs ringing the island offer some of the best diving in the Philippines for snorkelers and scuba divers. Dive courses are conducted by several dive operators in this island.

18. Fossils of the giant clam, Tridacna, are often encountered in the plowed inland fields of this island. On the hilltops, there are numerous shells of the molluscan species presently living in the seas around the island. Siquijor was probably formed quite recently, geologically speaking.

19. Panglao Island, which is part of the province of Bohol and more than 80 km away, has a similar composition of the soil which is found throughout the whole island of Siquijor.

20. There are many festivals held in this island: Tubod Festival(March 19), Lenten Festival of Herbal Preparation (Holy Thursday and Good Friday, dates vary), Folk Healing Festival (Black Saturday, date varies), Tang Alap (Easter Sunday, date varies), Canoan Festival (May 3), Saging Festival (May 15), Lubi Festival (May 21/24), Pamukad Festival (July 16), Bugwas Festival (between August 27-30), Araw ng Siquijor with Solili (third week of September, including September 17), Dilaab Festival (October 1). See my post: Now You Know: THE FESTIVALS OF SIQUIJOR

See my other posts about Siquijor:

SAN ISIDRO LABRADOR PARISH CHURCH AND CONVENT, SIQUIJOR

Now You Know: CANG-ISOK – SIQUIJOR’S OLDEST KNOWN HOUSE

GET BEWITCHED AT HAPITANAN, SIQUIJOR

The information was obtained from the Wikipedia page “Siquijor”12 and “List of festivals in the Philippines”13, https://en.wikivoyage.org/wiki/Siquijor, https://dumagueteinfo.com/other-destinations/siquijor-island/siquijor-travel-guide/, https://www.tripzilla.ph/siquijor-visita-iglesia-guide/102, https://www.vigattintourism.com/tourism/articles/Siquijor-An-Island-that-Rose-from-the-Sea, and https://www.cocogrovebeachresort.com/special-events/siquijor-fiestas/

Now, Senior Citizens, you might ask, “How do I get to Siquijor”? Sorry, there are no direct flights to Siquijor, except from Mactan-Cebu International Airport, using Air Juan14. Air Juan has the only daily flight to and from Siquijor from Cebu: Mactan-Cebu International Airport to Siquijor Airport (ETD 12:50 pm – ETA 1:30 pm) and Siquijor Airport (ETD 2:00 pm – ETA 2:40 pm). It only takes 40 minutes via a 9-seater Cessna Grand Caravan land plane!

Sigh, this island province, to-date, has only a small airport, about 5 km west of Siquijor town. Construction to expand it into a full airport capable of handling international slights started in 2017, but as of early 2019, the project appears far from completion.15

The nearest reasonably large airport is in Dumaguete City16 which has no international flights, but is well-connected to domestic destinations, including all main airports for international arrivals. The main air hub of the region is Mactan-Cebu International Airport in Metro Cebu. Since mid-2018, the new Panglao Airport in Bohol province also handles international flights. A tourist can generally reach Siquijor by ferry from any of these places.15

What we did was fly from Manila to Dumaguete City16, with a large airport near this island, 25 km away, about a little over an hour’s flight only. We stayed there for a couple of days, then rode an OceanJet 17 from the Dumaguete Port to Siquijor (PHP380, one way), for a day tour only. Of course, seniors get a discount so do not forget to bring your Senior Citizen cards!

And, dearest Seniors, if you plan to visit Siquijor, why not buy plane tickets during promotional sales of airlines or travel agencies to get the lowest possible price?

My group rode a tricycle to the Dumaguete City16 Port, took the first trip of the fast OceanJet17 at 7:20 am, and the trip only took about an hour. An LED screen provides a movie or you can just play a game in your cellphone or IPad, go over and edit pictures/videos which you took the previous day/s, or take a nap.

You can also Google other fast crafts or ferries for your Dumaguete-Siquijor-Dumaguete trip.

You can also take the slower and cheaper ferries, taking about 2 hours, one way. It is best to book tickets a day beforehand to be sure you have seats and need not wake up so early to fall in line, especially for the first trip in the morning.

Joining the first trip is best if you plan not to stay overnight in Siquijor and be aware of travel time from your last tour-stop and the Larena seaport.

If you are coming from another place, like Manila or neighboring islands, check transportation options and schedules online, and book a ferry a day before for your visit to this island.

You need to pay a Terminal Fee of PHP25 per person before leaving the Dumaguete16 port.

I know what your next question is: how do I explore the island, especially since I will not stay overnight?

Well, upon arrival at the port in Siquijor, you have several options for a day tour of the island, depending on your budget, driving skills, length of stay in the island, and the number of persons in your group:

1. For groups with seniors and kids, it would be best to hire an air-conditioned van at PHp3,500 per day. My group availed of one-day Siquijor Coastal Tour (see: I will place a link here about the main post) offered by Yane’s Adventures Van Services18 after we arrived at the port of Siquijor.

We arrived at the port of Siquijor and walked towards its gate. As expected, we encountered different Siquijodnons who offered island tours. We did not know anyone but we were lucky to have chosen Yane’s18 and its very cheerful and accommodating driver, Jimmy Bueno.

Jimmy showed us a laminated map of the island, complete with the various natural and man-made attractions we could see. However, we could only stay for less than 24 hours, so we selected destinations based on our online research among bloggers and Jimmy’s experience as a driver in the island, with the goal of not missing our 3:50 pm boat schedule back to Dumaguete City16.

There were so many natural and historical destinations but our group decided to choose only 6 places to visit. See our experience below.

2. Your group can book a tricycle island tour for PHP1,000 for one whole day. The tricycle is the main mode of transportation in the island. You can negotiate the places to be included in your tour so you better research ahead of time the “must visit” destinations. NOTE: Taking the regular tricycle from one town to another in this island might be more expensive so negotiate among the tricycle drivers just outside the port for a “special trip”.

3. You can rent a motorcycle and explore the island on your own, if you can drive. Plan your route before your arrival and when in doubt, or in case you get lost, the locals are hospitable and can point you to the right direction. Just Google bloggers regarding this matter because I have no personal experience about this mode of transportation. I was told that you will be asked to fill up a form.

Rest assured that the circumferential coastal road of the island is safe and well maintained. I did not notice but just a heads up because I read somewhere that there are no street lights in the island, so it might not be safe to drive alone at night.

4. There are also jeepneys with regular routes between municipalities as well as tricycles within a municipality7. This could prove to be cheaper to go around the island, especially if you will stay for more than a day. However, you may need to negotiate “special trips” for certain destinations you may want to visit that are far from the circumferential road.

For tourists staying at least overnight in the island, you can also inquire and arrange tours at the front desk of your resort.

My group had a chance to go to this island only for a day tour on March 2019, using a fast craft of OceanJet17. We bought a ticket upon arrival in Dumaguete16 so we will not have difficulty waking up very early to do all the ticketing right before boarding in the morning.

We skipped a lot of sites near the Siquijor port but we briefly stopped at the “I love Siquijor” sign for a group picture.

We only chose six destinations thereafter, for our SIQUIJOR COASTAL TOUR since the schedule of the OceanJet17 back to Dumaguete City16 was at 3:50 pm:

1. Paliton Beach, dubbed the “Little Boracay19of Siquijor”, located in the municipality7 of San Juan – see: PALITON BEACH: THE LITTLE BORACAY OF SIQUIJORPaliton beach-Siquijor-labelled

2. The 400 year old Balete tree and Fish Spa, located in the municipalityof Lazi. See ENCHANTING 400-YEAR-OLD BALETE TREE AND FISH SPA, SIQUIJOR.Balete tree-Siquijor-labelled

3. Hapitanan, where you can show your best witch poses and enjoy fresh coconut (buko), among others, also located in Lazi – see:  GET BEWITCHED AT HAPITANAN, SIQUIJORHapitanan-Siquijor-labelled

4. San Isidro Labrador Church and Convent, also located in Lazi – see: SAN ISIDRO LABRADOR PARISH CHURCH AND CONVENT, SIQUIJORSan Isidro Labrador-Convent-labelledLeft photo by Greg, 3 February 2010, featured in commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:St_Isidore_the_Laborer_Church_in_Lazi,_Siquijor.jpg

We were hungry almost midday and we asked our kind driver, Jimmy, where to eat fresh seafood along the way. He brought us to a small, open restaurant called El Monte Café & RestaurantIMG_3776

It offers an a la carte menu consisting of seafood, chicken and vegetables dishes as well as breakfast and budget options. IMG_3774

It was still early for lunch so there were no customers around.  We were also told that the seafood supplier did not deliver that day, so seafood dishes were not available. Anyway, we all ordered Chicken Barbecue. We also ordered Chopsuey to be shared. It took some time for the chicken orders to be grilled but we were satisfied with the degree of doneness, presentation, and taste when they were served. The chopsuey, however, had an average taste perhaps due to the milky looking, yet viscous sauce, but at least the vegetables were not that overcooked.Food-Siquijor-labelled

I strongly recommend that you plan where to eat for your day tour, with the help of your driver/tour guide. We just wanted a quick seafood meal and settled for what was available.

5. Cambugayan Falls, a three-tiered waterfalls where you can swim and take the Tarzan-Dive Challenge, also located in Lazi – see: TAKE A TARZAN-LIKE DIVE AT CAMBUGAHAY FALLS, SIQUIJOR!

Take the Tarzan-like Challenge at Cambugahay Falls

6. Salagdoong Beach, where you can swim, sunbathe, and take the Cliff Dive Challenge, located in the municipalityof Maria – see: SERENE AND SPONTANEOUS SALAGDOONG BEACH, SIQUIJORSalagdoong Beach-labelled

What I liked about our day tour of the island is the well-paved and wide Circumferential Road of the province. Most popular attractions were along this road, or can be easily accessed from it.

Souvenirs and pasalubong20 are available in several places in the island so it is best to ask your guide where to buy handicrafts, key chains, t-shirts, herbal oils, local delicacies, etc.

Love potions-Siquijor-labelled

Siquijor souvenirs-labelled

We did not witness any witchcraft, sorcery, or scary incidents. For me, based on our short stay in this island, the mystique of this province1 lies in its beautiful waterfalls, enchanting beaches, century-old trees, relaxing fish spa, interesting history, and warm hospitality of its people. Trust Tita S!

Our driver, Jimmy, respectfully reminded us to finish early in our last destination so we will not be late for the 3:50 pm departure of our OceanJet17 ride back to Dumaguete City16. He was also so kind to get seats for us, instead of us having to fall in line to do so. So, dearest future visitors of Siquijor, look for Jimmy as your driver. He is so professional, accommodating and pleasant.

You need to pay a Terminal Fee of PHP25 before leaving the Larena Port of Siquijor. Senior Citizens are discounted so be sure to be ready with your Senior Citizen cards. (I will place a picture here.)

The following are tips when visiting Siquijor:

1. Have an open mind. Set aside the reputed negative image of this island. Google bloggers and vloggers who went ahead to be assured that you will enjoy your stay. Plan the date/s, how long you will stay, and select destinations wisely. Do not expect first class facilities in beaches, falls and other places you visit. Just appreciate its simple set up and make this trip your chance to commune with nature.

2. Check the weather beforehand. Visit this island during the summer months, preferably on a weekday, to avoid the influx of locals in the beaches and to be sure there are no typhoons to spoil your vacation.

3. Book your ferry or fast craft trip ahead of time to be sure you will have seats and need not wake up early to line up for a ticket going to this island province, especially if you will take the first trip in the morning.

4. For snorkelers, bring your own snorkeling gear and flippers.

5. Do not forget to apply sunscreen before your trip. Bring your sunscreen so you can reapply when needed.

6. Bring enough PHP cash. Research ahead of time the location of banks in certain towns for ATM and foreign card transactions. Do not forget small amounts like PHP10, 20, 50 for entrance, parking, terminal fees, and other minor fees.

ATM machines are available in Philippine National Bank (PNB) Larena (but only Visa cards are accepted) and Metro Bank along the main road in Siquijor town, accepting MasterCard and Visa.15 https://en.wikivoyage.org/wiki/Siquijor

7. Fully charge your cell phones, cameras, power banks, and extra batteries.

8. Bring your own snacks, refillable water bottles, bamboo/metal drinking straws, etc., to destinations, but just be sure to dispose trash in proper bins. Be eco-friendly!

9. For spelunking (cave exploration as a hobby), always wear helmets and clothes which can still be comfortable when wet. Wear appropriate and comfortable footwear. Bring flashlights and extra clothing.

10. Secure belongings using a waterproof container, or designate a companion for the safekeeping of your group’s belongings.

11. Seniors, do not forget to bring your Senior Citizen card with you all the time to avail of your discount.

12. Go early to popular destinations to avoid large crowds.

13. It would be best to hire a “special trip”, i.e., a vehicle just for you and your companions for the day; because I was told that there is a lack of public transportation in the island. But no worries, once you exit the Siquijor port, there will be offers all over, so negotiate well, based on researched range of rates.

14. Just to be on the safe side, assign a companion to watch over your belongings when you swim or snorkel. Someone whispered to me that the crime rate in the island is very low. They say that locals are afraid to steal or do something bad because of their fear of the “needle”, referring to being the targets of the voodoo dolls used by certain locals. Perhaps, other tourists might be the culprits, who knows?! Just be careful, ok?

Seniors, Siquijor can be toured for a day, you just have to prioritize the places you will visit. If you want to see more than what we experienced, then add a day or two. Sorry, but we did not encounter any sorcerer or witch. Instead, we found the island-province very peaceful, safe, unpolluted, and the locals as hospitable, cheerful and friendly.

Bottomline, Siquijor is indeed a Mystical island. Be awed and fascinated by its raw beauty – its history, culture, white sand and pristine beaches, falls, hundred-year-old trees, springs, caves, mountains, and hospitable people. Yes, it is also a Healing Paradise! My visit of the island was therapeutic in a way – the captivating natural beauty of the Siquijor, the fresh breeze amidst the clear water sand white sand beaches we visited, such a peaceful island – all these, and more, restored the good vibes I needed to feel good and happy. This island is indeed so beautiful, with its unique character and simple charm! Perhaps I should revisit to see the fireflies at night when in season, and during one of its festivals to unravel more of its spiritualism and mystic, and then some!

You can visit the provincial government’s website for the list of accredited accommodations and their room rates. I cannot open the website cited by Wikipedia, www.siquijor.gov.ph, but I found its Facebook account: https://www.facebook.com/siquijorgov/.12

The Provincial Government of Siquijor holds office at the New Capitol Building, Pulangyuta, Siquijor 6225, Siquijor, with telephone numbers (035) 480-9173 and 480-9076, telefax (035) 344-2088.

We paid for our Siquijor Coastal Tour and all comments are personal, based on my experience in this province1. At this point, I can say that I demystified the mystical island of Siquijor!

Did you find this post informative? I would like to hear from you re your visit to Siquijor. Simply scroll and click “Leave a comment”. Do share this post with your Facebook friends, follow me by clicking on the bottom right corner of your device, and do not forget to like this post. Thank you.

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The following terms are defined for interested readers, especially non-Filipinos, those with “Senior-Moments”, and those too busy or lazy to Google such terms:

1A province is the primary administrative and political division in the Philippines. It is the second-level administrative sub-division of a region3. There are 81 provinces (called “lalawigan”) in the Philippines. Each province is governed by an elected legislature called the Sangguniang Panlalawigan and by an elected governor. Remember, a province in the Philippines is divided into cities9 and municipalities5 (or towns), which in turn, are divided into barangays10, formerly called barrios. The information was obtained from Wikipedia page “Provinces of the Philippines.”21 See a related post: Foreign Seniors Ask: WHAT ARE PROVINCES IN THE PHILIPPINES?

2Visayas is one of the 3 major geographical divisions of the Philippines. It covers 3 administrative regions3: Central Visayas4, Eastern Visayas and Western Visayas. It consists of 6 major islands (Bohol, Cebu, Leyte, Negros, Panay and Samar), mostly surrounded by the Visayan Sea, and is composed of 16 provinces1, according to Wikipedia page “Visayas”.22 Visayas is located at the middle part of the country; the 2 other geographical divisions of the Philippines are Luzon (in the northern part) and Mindanao (in the southern part).

3A region is the first-order administrative division in the Philippines. There are 17 regions in the Philippines, based on geographical, cultural and ethnological characteristics. It is further subdivided in provinces1, composed of cities and municipalities7 (or towns), which in turn, are divided into barangays10. The regions were initially identified in 1972, through Presidential Decree No. 1 of President Ferdinand Marcos. Since then, other regions have been created and some provinces have been “transferred” to another region. The information was obtained from Wikipedia page “Regions of the Philippines.”23 See a related post: Foreign Seniors Ask: WHAT ARE THE REGIONS OF THE PHILIPPINES?

4Central Visayas (Region VII) of the Philippines is a Philippine region3 located in the island group of Visayas2, with Cebu City as its regional center. It has 7 local government units24 (LGUs): Bohol, Cebu, Cebu City, Lapu-Lapu, Mandaue, Negros Oriental, and Siquijor. The information was obtained from Wikipedia page “Regions of the Philippines.”23

5Camiguin is the second smallest province1 in the Philippines, both in population and land area, after Batanes6. This island province is located in the Bohol Sea, geographically part of the Northern Mindanao Region (Region X), and formerly part of Misamis Oriental province. The provincial capital is Mambajao, also the province’s largest municipality7 in area and population. It is famous for its sweet lanzones (see related post – I will place the link here) to which the annual week-long Lanzones Festival is dedicated, held every third week of October. The information was obtained from Wikipedia page “Camiguin.”25

6Batanes is the smallest province1 in the Philippines, both in population and land area. This archipelago province is the northernmost province of the country, and is located in the Cagayan Valley Region (Region II). Its capital is Basco, located in the island of Batan. The entire province is listed in the UNESCO tentative list for inscription in the list of World Heritage Sites (see a related post – I will place a link here). Seven intangible heritage elements of the Ivatan26 are undergoing a process to be included in the UNESCO Intangible Cultural Heritage Lists between 2018-2025. The information was obtained from Wikipedia page “Batanes.”27

7A municipality is a small, single urban administrative division, or local government unit (LGU)24, in the Philippines which has corporate status and powers of self-government or jurisdiction as granted by law. It is a unit under a province1, subdivided into barangays10, and is called town, or bayan. In the Philippines, a municipality is headed by a mayor, a vice mayor and members of the Sangguniang Bayan (legislative branch). It can enact local policies and laws, enforce them, and govern its jurisdictions. It can enter into contracts and other transactions through its elected and appointed officials, and can tax as well. It enforces all local and national laws. The information was obtained from Wikipedia page “Municipalities of the Philippines.”28

8Molave is a large Philippine timber tree (Vitex parviflora), known for its dense, durable, yellow wood. It was once used extensively in furniture, boats, etc. as a valuable construction material, but due to habitat loss and overharvesting, it is now classified as endangered by the Philippine Department of Environment and Natural Resources. The information was obtained from Wikipedia page “Vitex parviflora.”29

9A balete tree, balite or baliti, refers to several species of the trees endemic to the Philippines, from the genus Ficus (with large, thick, or stiff leaves), of the family Moraceae. Members of this genus are characterized by possessing a white to yellowish latex, a unique inflorescence, and a distinctive pollination system, i.e., involving a specific wasp species (i.e., fig wasp of the family Agaonidaeas pollinators). Its aerial roots which reach the soil grow into it and thicken into additional trunks. The growing roots encircle the host tree and appear to strangle the latter. The host tree eventually dies and rots, leaving a hollow cylinder of roots, which have now become the trunks of the balete tree.30

10A barangay in the Philippines is the smallest administrative division in the Philippines, headed by a barangay captain, aided by a Sangguniang Barangay (Barangay Council). It is the native Filipino term for a district or village. It was formerly called a barrio. In a metropolitan area, a barangay is an inner city neighborhood, a suburb, or a suburban neighborhood. The word barangay originated from the term “balangay”, a kind of boat used by a group of Austronesian people who migrated to the Philippines. A number of barangays grouped together is called a district. The information was obtained from Wikipedia page “Barangay.”31

 11A marine reserve is a type of marine protected area (MPA)32 that has legal protection against fishing or development, according to Wikipedia page “Marine reserve”.33  The removal or destruction of natural and cultural resources in prohibited. It is created for a variety of purposes: to protect the spawning grounds of certain species, and as an outdoor laboratory that allows scientists to compare the undisturbed areas of a reserve to those impacted by human activities.34

12“Siquijor,” accessed March 8, 2019, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Siquijor

13“List of festivals in the Philippines,” accessed March 8, 2019, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_festivals_in_the_Philippines

14www.airjuan.com

15https://en.wikivoyage.org/wiki/Siquijor

16Dumaguete City is the capital and most populous city35 of the province1 of Negros Oriental, the neighboring province of Siquijor, located about 100 km to the west. It is nicknamed The City of Gentle People because of the hospitality of the locals. It is also called a University City because of the presence of 4 universities and a number of colleges, prominent of which is Siliman University, the first Protestant and American university in the country and Asia. It is also known for its beach resorts and dive sites, dolphin watching, and Apo Island’s giant turtles and awesome corals. It was also named the Best Place to Retire in the Philippines for 2018 by the Philippine Retirement Authority. The information was obtained from Wikipedia page “Dumaguete.”36

17Ocean Jet is the term for the high-speed water craft, owned and operated by Ocean Fast Ferries, Inc., a wholly owned Filipino corporation, offering ferry services to 10 destinations in the Philippines – Bacolod (Negros Occidental), Camotes Island and Cebu City (Cebu), Dumaguete16 (Negros Oriental), Iloilo City (Iloilo), Ormoc (Leyte), Larena (Siquijor) and Tagbilaran (Bohol), Batangas City (Batangas), and another in Calapan (Oriental Mindoro), with a fleet of 17 vessels. It was founded in 1995, then called Socor Shipping Lines (till 2001), with headquarters in Cebu City. The information was obtained from Wikipedia page “Ocean Fast Ferries.”37 Visit its website: www.oceanjet.net/

18Yane’s Adventures Van Services information – Address: Pangi, Siquijor, Siquijor; Contact numbers: 09052133123, 09069732330 and 09183124461, look for Jade Jumawan Pestillos, and request for our very accommodating and cheerful driver, Jimmy Bueno.

19Boracay is a small island at the northwestern tip of Panay Island, in the Western Visayas Region of the Philippines. It is administered by the Tourism Infrastructure and Enterprise Zone Authority (TIEZA) and the provincial government of Aklan. It is known the world over for its fine white sand beaches, and was repeatedly chosen and awarded as one of the top destinations in the world for relaxation. The information was obtained from Wikipedia page “Boracay.”38

20 Pasalubong is the Filipino term for the tradition of giving gifts or souvenirs, from a destination visited by a Filipino, to family and friends upon one’s return home.

21“Provinces of the Philippines,” accessed July 17, 2018, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Provinces_of_the_Philippines

22“Visayas,” accessed January 29, 2019,  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Visayas

23“Regions of the Philippines,” accessed July 17, 2018, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Regions_of_the_Philippines

24A local government unit (LGU) in the Philippines is divided into 3 levels: provinces1 and independent cities39; component cities40 and municipalities7; and, barangays10, according to Wikipedia page “Local government in the Philippines”.41

25“Camiguin,” accessed January 29, 2019, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Camiguin

26The Ivatans are a Filipino ethnolinguistic group predominant in the islands of Batanes6 of the Philippines, known for their stone houses of coral and limestone, designed to protect against the hostile climate in Batanes. Their origins remain untraced among scholars, but they are known to be an Austronesian group, i.e., a group of various peoples in Southeast Asia, Oceania and east Africa that speak Austronesian languages. The information was obtained from the Wikipedia page “Ivatan people”.42

27“Batanes,” accessed January 29, 2019, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Batanes

28 “Municipalities of the Philippines,” accessed January 29, 2019, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Municipalities_of_the_Philippines

29“Vitex parviflora,” accessed March 8, 2019, https://en.wikivoyage.org/wiki/Vitex_parviflora

30https://www.biology-online.org/dictionary/Balete

 31“Barangay,” accessed January 29, 2019,  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Barangay

32A marine protected area (MPA) is a protected area of estuaries, lakes, oceans or seas where a government has placed limits on human activity.43 The government restricts human activity for a conservation purpose, typically to protect natural or cultural resources. It can be a wildlife refuge to research facilities. It is protected by local, state, territorial, native, regional, national, or international authorities and differs substantially among and between nations, due to limitations on development, fishing practices, fishing seasons and catch limits, moorings and bans on removing disrupting marine life.44

 33“Marine reserve,” accessed March 2, 2019, https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marine_reserve

34https://www.nationalgeographic.org/encyclopedia/marine-reserve/

35A city is the local government unit24 in the Philippines headed by a mayor elected by popular vote. A vice mayor serves as the presiding officer of the Sangguniang Panlungsod (city council), which acts as the city’s legislative body. The information was obtained from Wikipedia page “Cities of the Philippines.”45

36“Dumaguete,” accessed January 29, 2019,  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dumaguete

37“Ocean Fast Ferries,” accessed January 29, 2019,  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ocean_Fast-Ferries

38“Boracay,” accessed January 29, 2019,  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boracay

39An independent city is a type of city35 in the Philippines which is administratively and legally not subject to a province1 so it does not share its tax revenues with any province. The national government and its agencies serve such a city through sub-offices of the region3 it belongs to. It is subdivided into 2: highly urbanized city46 or independent component city47. The information was obtained from Wikipedia page “Cities of the Philippines”45

40A component city is a type of city35 in the Philippines which does not meet the requirements of a highly urbanized city46. It is under the jurisdiction of a province1. If such a city is located along the boundaries of 2 or more provinces, it shall be considered part of the province of which it used to be a municipality7. The information was obtained from Wikipedia page “Cities of the Philippines”45

41“Local government in the Philippines,” accessed July 17, 2018, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Local_government_in_the_Philippines

42“Ivatan people,” accessed January 29, 2019, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ivatan_people

43https://www.nationalgeographic.org/encyclopedia/marine-reserve/

44“Marine protected area,” accessed March 2, 2019, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marine_protected_area

45“Cities of the Philippines,” accessed January 29, 2019, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cities_of_the_Philippines

46A highly urbanized city (HUC) is a type of city35 in the Philippines with a minimum population of 200,000 as certified by the Philippine Statistics Authority (PSA), and with the latest annual income of at least 50 million pesos, according to Wikipedia page “Cities of the Philippines”.45 There are currently 33 such cities in the Philippines (see link – Foreign Seniors Ask: HOW MANY CITIES ARE THERE IN THE PHILIPPINES?).

47An independent component city (ICC) is a type of city35 in the Philippines which is autonomous from the province1 in which it is geographically located and has a charter that explicitly prohibits its residents to vote for provincial officials (unless allowed to do so). It does not meet the requirements of a highly urbanized city46. There are 5 such cities in the country: Cotabato, Dagupan, Naga, Ormoc, and Santiago. The information was obtained from Wikipedia page “Cities of the Philippines”45

SAN ISIDRO LABRADOR PARISH CHURCH AND CONVENT, SIQUIJOR

The Lazi Church, or San Isidro Labrador Parish Church, is a Roman Catholic church in the municipality1 of Lazi2 (formerly Tigbawan), in the province3 of Siquijor4, Philippines.

1024px-St_Isidore_the_Laborer_Church_in_Lazi,_SiquijorGreg – originally posted to Flickr https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lazi_Church#/media/File:St._Isidore_the_Laborer_Church_in_Lazi,_Siquijor.jpg

It is under the jurisdiction of the Diocese of Dumaguete5. It became an independent parish on August 8, 1857. The sea stone-wood, neoclassical-style6 church was built in 1884 by Filipino artisans, followed by the bell tower the following year, under the direction of Recollect7 priest Father Toribio Sanchez. The church has two pulpits, and has retained its original retabloand wood floorings.

This church was my group’s fourth stop (out of six) during our one-day Siquijor Coastal Tour. We rented an air-conditioned van owned by Yane’s Adventures Van Services6 after we arrived at the port of Siquijor. We were lucky to have a very cheerful and accommodating driver, Jimmy Bueno.2-parking-Jimmy-cropped

I wanted to enter this 135-year old church, see the belfry, light a candle, and take pictures, including the grotto, but when we visited it on March 25, 2019, it was closed for renovation. Perhaps, this is one reason why I should return to this island province3.1-Lazi-Church-constructionGreat news, target date of completion is May 21, 2019! Please give me feedback if this target was met.

Anyway, at the opposite side of the street is the church’s big convent. The construction of this U-shaped, bahay na bato10 convent was made with coral stones and hardwood, commenced in 1887, and completed in 1891, also under Fr. Toribio.

1024px-Lazi_Convent_ColorThe Lazi Convent in 2012 (Carmelo Bayarcal, own work created June 10, 2012, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lazi_Church#/media/File:Lazi_Convent_Color.JPG)

1-Lazi-trees-afar-ok

It is one of the largest convents built during the Spanish colonial era11, at 42 meters by 38 meters (138 ft. by 125 ft.). The ground floor has stonewalls and the second floor has wooden panels. A street sweeper I talked with said that this convent is the largest and oldest in Asia. I need to research to verify that claim.

The convent is funded by donations from parishes and missions of the Recollects7. Partitions of the convent were removed, but the original structure was maintained. It now houses the Siquijor Heritage Museum which has collections of important church relics and paraphernalia.

Unfortunately, I did not have the chance to enter this convent. I merely took pictures of it from the road. I also admired, took pictures, and touched the three trees along the street which look like at least a hundred years old. BeFunky-collage-Lazi Trees

Lazi Church was declared a National Historical Landmark12 by the National Historical Commission of the Philippines13 in 1984, and a National Cultural Treasure14 by the National Museum of the Philippines15 in 2001. It was also nominated to be part of the UNESCO World Heritage Sites16 Tentative List since 2006, under the collective group of Baroque17 Churches of the Philippines (Extension), together with the churches of Patrocinio de Maria in Boljoon, Cebu; La Immaculada Concepcion in Guiuan, Eastern Samar; San Pedro Apostol in Loboc, Bohol; and San Mattias in Tumauini, Isabela. In 2014, the government announced its plan to nominate this church in the World Heritage List.

800px-Allan_Jay_Quesada_-_Lazi_Church_DSC_2365Lazi Church in 2016 (Allan Jay Quesada, own work, 20 April 2016, https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Allan_Jay_Quesada_-_Lazi_Church_DSC_2365.jpg)

The information was obtained from the Wikipedia pages “Lazi, Siquijor”18 and “Siquijor”19.

We paid for our Siquijor Coastal Tour and all comments are based on my personal experience in this province3.

You can read related posts about my Siquijor tour: TAKE A TARZAN-LIKE DIVE AT CAMBUGAHAY FALLS, SIQUIJOR!, ENCHANTING 400-YEAR-OLD BALETE TREE AND FISH SPA, SIQUIJOR, SERENE AND SPONTANEOUS SALAGDOONG BEACH, SIQUIJORGET BEWITCHED AT HAPITANAN, SIQUIJOR, PALITON BEACH: THE LITTLE BORACAY OF SIQUIJOR,  and Now You Know – SIQUIJOR: ITS LEGEND, HISTORY, TRADITIONS, AND BELIEFS.

Did you find this post informative? I would like to hear from you re your visit to this historical church and convent. Simply scroll and click “Leave a comment”. Do share this post with your Facebook friends, follow me by clicking on the bottom right corner of your device, and do not forget to like this post. Thank you.

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The following terms are defined for interested readers, especially non-Filipinos, those with “Senior-Moments”, and those too busy or lazy to Google such terms:

 1A municipality is a small, single urban administrative division, or local government unit (LGU)20, in the Philippines which has corporate status and powers of self-government or jurisdiction as granted by law. It is a unit under a province3, subdivided into barangays21, and is called town, or “bayan”. In the Philippines, a municipality is headed by a mayor, a vice mayor and members of the Sangguniang Bayan (legislative branch). It can enact local policies and laws, enforce them, and govern its jurisdictions. It can enter into contracts and other transactions through its elected and appointed officials, and can tax as well. It enforces all local and national laws. The information was obtained from Wikipedia page “Municipalities of the Philippines.”22

 2Lazi, formerly called Tigbawan, is a coastal municipality1 in the island province3 of Siquijor4, with 18 barangays21. It is located in the southeastern side of the island, between the towns of San Juan in the west and Maria from the east. It is known for its Roman Catholic church called San Isidro Labrador Parish Church (see above), the Convent in front of it (see above), the 400-yo enchanting balete tree with fish spa (see my post: ENCHANTING 400-YEAR-OLD BALETE TREE AND FISH SPA, SIQUIJOR), and Cambugahay Falls (where you can accept the Tarzan Swing-Dive Challenge; see my post: TAKE A TARZAN-LIKE DIVE AT CAMBUGAHAY FALLS, SIQUIJOR!). The information was obtained from the Wikipedia page “Lazi, Siquijor”18 and “Siquijor”19. Visit this site for more information: http://www.phtourguide.com/municipality-of-lazi-in-siquijor/

 3A province is the primary administrative and political division in the Philippines. It is the second-level administrative sub-division of a region23. There are 81 provinces (called “lalawigan”) in the Philippines. Each province is governed by an elected legislature called the Sangguniang Panlalawigan and by an elected governor. In the Philippines, a province is divided into cities24 and municipalities1 (or towns), which in turn, are divided into barangays21, formerly called barrios. The information was obtained from Wikipedia page “Provinces of the Philippines.”25 See a related post: Foreign Seniors Ask: WHAT ARE PROVINCES IN THE PHILIPPINES?

 4Siquijor is an island province3 of the Philippines located in the Central Visayas Region (Region VII)26. Its capital is the municipality1 which is also called Siquijor. This coralline island is predominantly hilly, and in many places the hills reach the sea, producing steep cliffs. Geographically, Cebu is to the north, Negros to the west, Bohol to the northeast, and to the south, across the Bohol Sea, is Mindanao. It has a long-time reputation as a place of magic, sorcery, and mystical traditions. It is also well known for its festivals that focus on healing rituals where incantations are sung, while the old folks make potions out of herbs, roots, insects, and tree barks. The information was obtained from the Wikipedia page “Siquijor”.19

5Dumaguete is the capital city24 and main port of Negros Oriental, a province3 in Central Visayas (Region VII)26, of the Philippines. This laid-back university town is called the “City of Gentle People”. It has a charming sea-front boulevard, the most popular destination in the Philippines for retiring abroad, and among the top 10 tourist destinations in the country. The information was obtained from the Wikivoyage page “Dumaguete”.27

6Neoclassical architecture is an architectural style that began in the mid-18th century, characterized by grandeur of scale, simplicity of geometric forms, dramatic use of columns, Greek/Roman detail, and a preference for blank walls.28

7The Recollects were a French reform branch of the Order of Friars Minor created at the end of the 15th century, commonly known today as the Franciscans, best known for their presence as missionaries in various parts of the world. They wore gray habits and pointed hoods, took vows of poverty, and devoted their lives to prayer, penance, and spiritual reflection. In 1897, Pope Leo XIII officially dissolved the Recollects order and integrated it as a part of the Franciscan order, officially changing their name to Friars Minor. The information was obtained from the Wikipedia page “Recollects”.29

8A retablo is the altarpiece, the main feature of old Roman Catholic churches. This upright panel, intricately carved, gilded, polychromed, and highly decorated, has a wooden frame and contains ledges and panels behind and above the altar. It is embellished with decorative features like rosettes, grapevines, scrolls, and cherubs, crafted by native artisans. It has several niches for the patron saint, usually located in the topmost portion, while other saints, affiliated to the religious order which takes care of the church, occupy both sides of the second and third levels.30

9Yane’s Adventures Van Services information – Address: Pangi, Siquijor, Siquijor; Contact numbers: 09052133123, 09069732330 and 09183124461, look for Jade JumawanPestillos, and request for our very accommodating and cheerful driver, Jimmy Bueno.

10Bahay na bato, literally “house of stone”, is the Filipino term for a type of building originating during the Philippines’ Spanish Colonial period11, with a rectangular plan, popular among the elite and middle-class. It is an elevated, overhanging wooden upper-story nipa hut31 with balustrades, ventanillas (small windows), and capiz32 shell sliding windows. It stands on Spanish-style solid stone blocks or bricks and posts as foundation, and not wood, bamboo stilts, or timber posts. Roofing is either Chinese tiled roof or thatch (nipa, sago, palm or cogon), many today have been replaced by galvanized, or other modern, roofing. The information was obtained from the Wikipedia page “Bahay na bato”.33

11The Spanish colonial era was the historical part of the Philippines from 1521, when European explorer Ferdinand Magellan arrived in the country, and ended in 1898, with the outbreak of the Philippine Revolution34. The information was obtained from the Wikipedia page “History of the Philippines from 1521 to 1898”.35

12A National Historical Landmark of the Philippines is a place or an object that is associated with an event, achievement, characteristics or modification that presents a turning point or stage in history. The information was obtained from the Wikipedia page “Category: National Historical Landmarks of the Philippines”.36

13The National Historical Commission of the Philippines (NHCP) is a government agency of the Philippines which promotes Philippine history and cultural heritage through research, dissemination, conservation, sites management, and heraldry works, thereby inculcating awareness and appreciation of the noble deeds and ideals of our heroes and other illustrious Filipinos, instilling pride in the Filipino people, and rekindling the Filipino spirit through the lessons of history. The information was obtained from the Wikipedia page “National Historical Commission of the Philippines”.37

14A National Cultural Treasure (NCT) of the Philippines is a tangible (movable and immovable) or intangible heritage property declared by the National Commission for Culture and Arts38 and other cultural agencies such as the National Museum of the Philippines15, National Library of the Philippines39, and National Archives of the Philippines40. Such declarations are authorized under the National Cultural Heritage Act of 200941 and recognized within the Cultural Properties of the Philippines42 by the Philippine government. The title of NCT is the highest designation given to a “unique cultural property found locally, possessing outstanding historical, cultural, artistic and/or scientific value which is highly significant and important to the country and nation”.43 The information was obtained from the Wikipedia page “National Cultural Treasure”.44

15The National Museum of the Philippines is a government institution in the Philippines which serves as the educational, scientific and cultural institution in preserving the various permanent national collections featuring the ethnographic, anthropological, archaeological and visual artistry of the Philippines. It was formed on October 29, 1901, with headquarters in Padre Burgos Avenue, in Rizal Park, Ermita, Manila. Since 1998, it has been the regulatory and enforcement agency of the national government in restoring and safeguarding important cultural properties, sites and reservations throughout the Philippines. It is under the Department of Education and the National Commission for Culture and Arts38. The information was obtained from the Wikipedia page “National Museum of the Philippines”.45 Visit its website: www.nationalmuseum.gov.ph

16A UNESCO World Heritage Site (WHS) is a unique landmark, or geographically and historically identifiable place, which is selected by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) as having cultural, historical, scientific, physical or other form of significance, and is legally protected by international treaties. Sites are demarcated by UNESCO as protected zones. The list is maintained by the International World Heritage Program administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 state parties which are elected by the General Assembly. Under certain conditions, listed sites can obtain funds from the World Heritage Fund. The information was obtained from the Wikipedia page “World Heritage Site”.46

17Baroque architecture began in Rome, Italy, in the late 16th century, which conveys grandeur and drama, most often used in palaces and churches. It includes curving forms, oval shapes, and a combination of concave and convex forms that make walls seem to undulate, or appear wavy, with a strong sense of motion. It groups things together like columns and decorative flourishes on building surfaces. Architectural elements are repeated across a surface. It uses distortion to make figures elongated, broken, or manipulated in some manner to make them stand out. Buildings have columns, sometimes topped with capitals and large volutes, scroll, or spiral forms. Sculptural wall elements will often project from the surface which is full of forms to increase the interplay of light and shadow across them. Inside, Baroque structures will often have ceilings painted in bright colors, made to fool one’s eye into believing one is looking at the sky. Buildings also have very rich surface treatments, including interiors with stucco47, various colored marbles, and gold gilt or thin sheets of gold applied to surfaces. Most Baroque churches have vaulted ceilings, supported by a series of interconnected arches.48

18“Lazi, Siquijor,” accessed March 8, 2019,https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lazi,_Siquijor

19“Siquijor,” accessed March 8, 2019,https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Siquijor

20A local government unit (LGU) in the Philippines is divided into 3 levels: provinces3 and independent cities49; component cities50 and municipalities1; and, barangays21, according to Wikipedia page “Local government in the Philippines”.51

21A barangay in the Philippines is the smallest administrative division in the Philippines, headed by a barangay captain, aided by a Sangguniang Barangay (Barangay Council). It is the native Filipino term for a district or village. It was formerly called a barrio. In a metropolitan area, a barangay is an inner city neighborhood, a suburb, or a suburban neighborhood. The word barangay originated from the term “balangay”, a kind of boat used by a group of Austronesian people who migrated to the Philippines. A number of barangays grouped together is called a district. The information was obtained from Wikipedia page “Barangay.”52

22“Municipalities of the Philippines,” accessed January 29, 2019,  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Municipalities_of_the_Philippines

23A region is the first-order administrative division in the Philippines. There are 17 regions in the Philippines, based on geographical, cultural and ethnological characteristics. It is further subdivided in provinces3, composed of cities and municipalities1 (or towns), which in turn, are divided into barangays21. The regions were initially identified in 1972, through Presidential Decree No. 1 of President Ferdinand Marcos. Since then, other regions have been created and some provinces have been “transferred” to another region. The information was obtained from Wikipedia page “Regions of the Philippines.”53

24A city is the local government unit20 in the Philippines headed by a mayor elected by popular vote. A vice-mayor serves as the presiding officer of the city’s legislative body – the Sangguniang Panlungsod (city council). The information was obtained from Wikipedia page “Cities of the Philippines.”54

25“Provinces of the Philippines,” accessed July 17, 2018,  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Provinces_of_the_Philippines

26Central Visayas (Region VII) of the Philippines is a Philippine region23 located in the island group of Visayas55, with Cebu City as its regional center. It has 7 local government units20 (LGUs): Bohol, Cebu, Cebu City, Lapu-Lapu, Mandaue, Negros Oriental, and Siquijor4. The information was obtained from Wikipedia page “Regions of the Philippines.”53

27“Dumaguete,” accessed March 8, 2019,https://en.wikivoyage.org/wiki/Dumaguete

28https://www.britannica.com/art/Neoclassical-architecture

29“Recollects,” accessed March 8, 2019,https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Recollects

30http://www.nationalmuseum.gov.ph/nationalmuseumbeta/Collections/Retablo.html

31The nipa hut, bahay kubopayag or kamalig, is a type of native, stilt house of the indigenous people of the Philippines before the Spaniards arrived in 1521, similar to neighboring countries in Southeast Asia like Indonesia and Malaysia. It often serves as an icon of Philippine culture or, more specifically, rural cultures, designed to endure the climate and environment of the country. It was made from plant materials, like bamboo, which was easily accessible and acquired to rebuild it when damaged by a storm or earthquake. The information was obtained from the Wikipedia page “Nipa hut”.56

32Capiz, or kapis, is the shell of the windowpane oyster (Placuna placenta), an edible, bivalve marine mollusk in the family of Placunidae. It is durable and translucent so it is used as a glass substitute for windows, and even decorative items like chandeliers and lampshades. The information was obtained from the Wikipedia page “Windowpane oyster”.57

33“Bahay na bato,” accessed March 8, 2019,https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bahay_na_Bato

34The Philippine Revolution is the revolution that started on August 23, 1896 when the Spaniards discovered the Katipunan58, and ended in August 13, 1898. The Filipinos were victorious, and this resulted in the expulsion of the Spanish colonial government, as well as the: signing of the Pact of Biak-na-Bato59 in 1897; resumption of hostilities during the Spanish-American War60 in 1898; the establishment of the First Philippine Republic61; and, the outbreak of the Philippine-American War62 in 1899. The information was obtained from the Wikipedia page “Philippine Revolution”.63

35“History of the Philippines from 1521 to 1898,” accessed October 16, 2018, https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_the_Philippines

36“Category: National Historical Landmarks of the Philippines,” accessed October 16, 2018, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Category:_National_Historical_Landmarks_of_the_Philippines

37“National Historical Commission of the Philippines,” accessed October 16, 2018, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/National_Historical_Commission_of_the_Philippines

38The National Commission for Culture and Arts is the official government agency for culture in the Philippines, formed in 1987, with headquarters in General Luna Street, Intramuros, Manila. It is the overall policy making body, coordinating, and grants-giving agency for the preservation, development and promotion of Philippine arts and culture. Its parent department is the Office of the President of the Philippines and its sub-agencies are the: National Archives of the Philippines40, National Historical Commission of the Philippines13, National Library of the Philippines39, National Museum of the Philippines45, Commission on the Filipino Language, and the Cultural Center of the Philippines. The information was obtained from the Wikipedia page “National Commission for Culture and Arts”.64 Visit its website: www.ncca.gov.ph

39The National Library of the Philippines is the official national library of the Philippines, with over 1.6 million pieces in its collections. It is notably called the home of the original copies of the defining works of Jose Rizal (Noli Me Tangere, El Filibusterismo and Mi Ultimo Adios). It was established in 1901 and is located in Rizal Park, at T. M. Kalaw Avenue, Ermita, Manila. The information was obtained from the Wikipedia page “National Library of the Philippines”.65 Visit its website: www.web.nlp.gov.ph

40The National Archives of the Philippines is an agency of the Philippines which is mandated to collect, store, preserve and make available, archival records of the government and other primary sources pertaining to the history and development of the country, as a result of the passage of Republic Act 9470 on May 21, 2007. It is the primary records management agency, tasked to formulate and implement the records schedule and vital records protection programs for the government. Its headquarters is in the National Library of the Philippines, in Rizal Park, at T. M. Kalaw Avenue, Ermita, Manila. The information was obtained from the Wikipedia page “National Archives of the Philippines”.66 Visit its website: www.nationalarchives.gov.ph

41The National Cultural Heritage Act is a law of the Republic of the Philippines which created the Philippine Registry of Cultural Property and took other steps to preserve historic buildings that are over 50 years old, signed into law on March 25, 2009, according to the Wikipedia page “National Cultural Heritage Act”.67

42The Cultural Properties of the Philippines refers to the cultural properties listed by the National Commission for Culture and Arts38, National Historical Commission of the Philippines13, and the National Museum of the Philippines15 through the Philippine Registry of Cultural Property (PRECUP), the official cultural property list of the country. The information was obtained from Wikipedia page “Cultural properties of the Philippines”.68

43www.primer.com.ph

44“National Cultural Treasure,” accessed October 16, 2018, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/National_Cultural_Treasure

45“National Museum of the Philippines,” accessed October 16, 2018, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/National_Museum_of_the_Philippines

46“World Heritage Site,” accessed October 16, 2018, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World_Heritage_Site

47Stucco refers to the cement-based and fine plaster used for coating wall surfaces or molding into architectural decorations. It hardens into a highly durable material that requires little maintenance and can be used to obtain different textures and finishes.69

48https://study.com/academy/lesson/italian-baroque-architecture-characteristics-examples.html

49An independent city is a type of city24 in the Philippines which is administratively and legally not subject to a provinceso it does not share its tax revenues with any province. The national government and its agencies serve such a city through sub-offices of the region23 it belongs to. It is subdivided into 2: highly urbanized city70 or independent component city71. The information was obtained from Wikipedia page “Cities of the Philippines”54

50A component city is a type of city24 in the Philippines which does not meet the requirements of a highly urbanized city70. It is under the jurisdiction of a province3. If such a city is located along the boundaries of 2 or more provinces, it shall be considered part of the province of which it used to be a municipality1. The information was obtained from Wikipedia page “Cities of the Philippines”54

51“Local government in the Philippines,” accessed January 29, 2019, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Local_government_in_the_Philippines

52“Barangay,” accessed January 29, 2019, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Barangay

53“Regions of the Philippines,” accessed January 29, 2019,  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Regions_of_the_Philippines

54“Cities of the Philippines,” accessed January 29, 2019,  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cities_of_the_Philippines

55Visayas is one of the 3 major geographical divisions of the Philippines. It covers 3 administrative regions: Central Visayas26, Eastern Visayas and Western Visayas. It consists of 6 major islands (Bohol, Cebu, Leyte, Negros, Panay and Samar), mostly surrounded by the Visayan Sea, and is composed of 16 provinces3, according to Wikipedia page “Visayas”.72 Visayas is located at the middle part of the country; the 2 other geographical divisions of the Philippines are Luzon (in the northern part) and Mindanao (in the southern part).

56“Nipa hut,” accessed October 16, 2018, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nipa_hut

57“Windowpane oyster,” accessed October 16, 2018, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Windowpane_oyster

58The Katipunan was the Philippine revolutionary secret society founded by anti-Spanish Filipinos in Manila in 1892 which aimed to gain independence from Spain through a revolution, according to the Wikipedia page “Katipunan”.73

59Pact of Biak-na-Bato was a truce between Spanish colonial Governor-General Fernando Primo de Rivera and the revolutionary leader Emilio Aguinaldo to end the Philippine Revolution34, signed on December 14, 1897, in the house of Pablo Tecson (a Philippine revolutionary captain who served as Brigadier General under General Gregorio del Pilar) in San Miguel, Bulacan. Aguinaldo and his fellow revolutionaries were given amnesty and monetary indemnity by the Spanish government, in return for which the revolutionary government would go on exile in Hong Kong. The information was obtained from Wikipedia page “Pact of Biak-na-Bato”.74

60The Spanish-American War was fought between Spain and the United States in 1898. Hostilities began in the aftermath of the internal explosion of USS Maine in Havana Harbor, in Cuba, leading to US intervention in the Cuban War of Independence. The Americans won and it resulted in the Treaty of Paris75, signed on December 10, 1898, came into effect on April 11, 1899, when the documents of ratification were exchanged, with Spain relinquishing all claims of sovereignty over and title to Cuba, and ceded Puerto Rico, Guam and the Philippines to the US. The cession of the Philippines involved a compensation of $20 million from the US to Spain. The information was obtained from Wikipedia pages “Spanish-American War”76 and “Treaty of Paris of 1898”77.

61The First Philippine Republic, or the Malolos Republic, was a nascent revolutionary government in the Philippines, established after the Philippine Revolution34 against the Spanish Empire (1896-1897) and the Spanish-American War60, and was the first constitutional republic in Asia, with a comprehensive constitution duly approved by a partially elected congress. It was formally established with the proclamation of the Malolos Constitution on January 21, 1899, in Malolos, Bulacan, and endured until the capture of President Emilio Aguinaldo by the American forces on March 23, 1901, in Palanan, Isabela. The information was obtained from Wikipedia page “First Philippine Republic”.78

62The Philippine-American War, the Philippine War, the Philippine Insurrection, or the Tagalog Insurgency, was an armed conflict between the First Philippine Republic61 and the USA that lasted from February 4, 1899 to July 2, 1902. The conflict arose when the former objected to the terms of the Treaty of Paris75, under which the US took possession of the Philippines from Spain, ending the short Spanish-American War60. The information was obtained from Wikipedia page “Philippine-American War”.79

63“Philippine Revolution,” accessed October 16, 2018, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Philippine_Revolution

64 “National Commission for Culture and Arts,” accessed October 16, 2018,https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/National_Commission_for_Culture_and-Arts

65“National Library of the Philippines,” accessed October 16, 2018, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/National_Library_of_the_Philippines

66“National Archives of the Philippines,” accessed October 16, 2018,https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/National_Archives_of_the_Philippines

67“National Cultural Heritage Act,” accessed October 16, 2018, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/National_Cultural_Heritage_Act

68“Cultural properties of the Philippines,” accessed October 16, 2018,https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cultural_properties_of_the_Philippines

69https://www.thebalancesmb.com/choose-right-stucco-mix-844655

70A highly urbanized city (HUC) is a type of city24 in the Philippines with a minimum population of 200,000 as certified by the Philippine Statistics Authority (PSA), and with the latest annual income of at least 50 million pesos, according to Wikipedia page “Cities of the Philippines”.54 There are currently 33 such cities in the Philippines (Foreign Seniors Ask: HOW MANY CITIES ARE THERE IN THE PHILIPPINES?).

71An independent component city (ICC) is a type of city24 in the Philippines which is autonomous from the province3 in which it is geographically located and has a charter that explicitly prohibits its residents to vote for provincial officials (unless allowed to do so). It does not meet the requirements of a highly urbanized city70. There are 5 such cities in the country: Cotabato, Dagupan, Naga, Ormoc, and Santiago. The information was obtained from Wikipedia page “Cities of the Philippines”54

72“Visayas,” accessed January 29, 2019, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Visayas

73“Katipunan,” accessed October 16, 2018,https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Katipunan

74“Pact of Biak-na-Bato,” accessed October 16, 2018, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pact_of_Biak-na-Bato

75The Treaty of Paris was an agreement, signed on December 10, 1898, that involved Spain relinquishing nearly all the remaining Spanish Empire, especially Cuba, and ceding Guam, Puerto Rico, and the Philippines to the US, thus ending the Spanish-American War60. It came into effect on April 11, 1899, when the documents of ratification were exchanged. The cessation of the Philippines involved a payment of US$20 million from the US to Spain. The information was obtained from the Wikipedia page “Treaty of Paris (1898)”.77

76“Spanish-American War,” accessed November 2, 2018, https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spanish_American_War

77“Treaty of Paris,” accessed November 2, 2018, https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Treaty_of-Paris.

78“First Philippine Republic,” accessed October 16, 2018, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/First_Philippine_Republic

79“Philippine-Amercian War,” accessed November 2, 2018, https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Philippine-American_War.

Now You Know: SIQUIJOR’S 6 ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCHES

Siquijor is an island province1 of the Philippines located in the Central Visayas2 Region (Region3 VII)4. It has 6 municipalities5: Enrique Villanueva, Larena, Lazi, Maria, San Juan, and Siquijor (the capital, and yes, it has the same name as the province). See related posts: (I will place links here)

The province1 has a long-time reputation as a place of magic, sorcery, and mystical traditions, way before the Spaniards arrived in the Philippines. The island then was the home of the Kingdom of Katugasan (from the word tugas, or Molave trees, that cover the hills, found all over the island). The people lived in caves, traded with the Chinese, and developed the art of traditional healing and witchcraft belief systems. Datu Kihod was their last reigning monarch, sometime during the 16th century. It is also well known for its festivals that focus on healing rituals.

In 1565, this island was discovered by Esteban Rodriguez and Juan Aguirre of the Legaspi6 expedition. Founded in 1783 under the administration of secular clergymen, Siquijor became the first municipality5 as well as the first parish to be established on the island. Siquijor was, from the beginning, administered by the Diocese of Cebu7. That is how the local people started to become Roman Catholics.

The first Augustinian Recollect8 priests arrived in Siquijor in 1794. Several years later, a priest of the same order founded the parishes of Larena (initially called Canoan), Lazi (formerly Tigbawan), San Juan (Makapilay), and Maria (Cang‑meniao). With the exception of Enrique Villanueva, the other five municipalities5 were established as parishes in 1877. No wonder the province has some of the oldest churches in the Philippines. To-date, ninety-five percent of the island’s residents are Roman Catholic.

This province1 showcases the unique culture of blending Catholicism with traditional religious practices – a major part of its people’s cultural heritage, identity and character. Siquijor is a mystical island and it also has 6 Roman Catholic churches9: Let us know more about these centuries-old churches:

1.Our Lady of Divine Providence10 Church (Santa Maria Church) – This is the parish church11 of the town of Maria, established in 1887, known for its famous replica of Santa Rita de Cascia12, or the Black Maria, as the locals call it.

Santa_Maria_Church-Maria-SiquijorSource: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Santa_Maria_Church_(Maria,_Siquijor).jpg – Franz Miko Verzon – own work

2. Our Lady of Mount Carmel Church (Mount Carmel Church) – This is the parish church11 of the town of Enrique Villanueva, along the island’s Circumferential Road, in honor of Our Lady of Mount Carmel13.

Mount_Carmel_Church-Enrique-Villanueva-SiquijorSource: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Mount_Carmel_Church_01.JPG – Lawrence Ruiz – own work

3. St. Augustine Parish (Macapilay Church) – This is the parish church11 of the town of San Juan, built in 1863, in honor of St. Augustine of Hippo14.

San_Agustin_Parish_Church-San Juan-SiquijorSource: https://commons.wikimeida.org/wiki/File:San_Agustin_Parish_Church.jpg – Franz Miko Verzon – own work

4. St. Francis of Assisi Church (Siquijor Church) – This is the parish church11 of the town of Siquijor, located very near the port, and established under the patronage of St. Francis de Assisi15 on February 1, 1783. A Philippine historical marker16 was issued on May 19, 1984.

St._Francis_of_Assisi_Church-Siquijor-SiquijorSource: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/St._Francis_of_Assisi_Church_(Siquijor,_Siquijor) – Franz Miko Verzon – own work

5. St. Isidore the Farmer17 Church (Lazi Church), or San Isidro Labrador Parish Church – This is the parish church11 of the town of Lazi, founded in 1857 by the Recollects8, and declared a National Historical Landmark18 by the National Historical Commission of the Philippines19 in 1984, and a National Cultural Treasure20 by the National Museum of the Philippines21 in 2001. It was also nominated to be part of the UNESCO World Heritage Sites22 Tentative List since 2006, under the collective group of Baroque23 Churches of the Philippines (Extension). See my post: (I will place a link here). It also has one of the largest convents in the Philippines, located at the opposite side of the street, facing the church. A Philippine historical marker16 was issued on May 19, 1984.

Lazi_Church-SiquijorSource: https://commons.wikimedia/wiki/File:Lazi_Church_01.JPG – Lawrence Ruiz – own work

6. Saint Vincent Ferrer Church (Larena Church) – This is the parish church11 of the town of Larena, erected on June 14, 1836, with the advocacy of San Vicente Ferrer24.

St._Vincent_Ferrer_Church_in_Larena-SiquijorSource: https://commons.wikimedia/wiki/File:St._Vincent_Ferrer_Church_in_Larena.JPG

The information was obtained from the Wikipedia page “Siquijor”25, “List of Historical Markers of the Philippines in Central Visayas”26 and “List of Cultural Properties of the Philippines in Central Visayas”27

You can read related posts about my Siquijor tour: SAN ISIDRO LABRADOR PARISH CHURCH AND CONVENT, SIQUIJOR, PALITON BEACH: THE LITTLE BORACAY OF SIQUIJOR, GET BEWITCHED AT HAPITANAN, SIQUIJOR, Now You Know – SIQUIJOR: ITS LEGEND, HISTORY, TRADITIONS, AND BELIEFS, ENCHANTING 400-YEAR-OLD BALETE TREE AND FISH SPA, SIQUIJOR, TAKE A TARZAN-LIKE DIVE AT CAMBUGAHAY FALLS, SIQUIJOR!, and SERENE AND SPONTANEOUS SALAGDOONG BEACH, SIQUIJOR.

Did you find this post informative? I would like to hear from you re the six Roman Catholic churches of Siquijor. Simply scroll and click “Leave a comment”. Do share this post with your Facebook friends, follow me by clicking on the bottom right corner of your device, and do not forget to like this post. Thank you.

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The following terms are defined for interested readers, especially non-Filipinos, those with “Senior-Moments”, and those too busy or lazy to Google such terms:

1A province is the primary administrative and political division in the Philippines. It is the second-level administrative sub-division of a region3. There are 81 provinces (called “lalawigan”) in the Philippines. Each province is governed by an elected legislature called the Sangguniang Panlalawigan and by an elected governor. Remember, a province in the Philippines is divided into cities28 and municipalities5 (or towns), which in turn, are divided into barangays29, formerly called barrios. The information was obtained from Wikipedia page “Provinces of the Philippines.”30 See a related post: Foreign Seniors Ask: WHAT ARE PROVINCES IN THE PHILIPPINES?

2Visayas is one of the 3 major geographical divisions of the Philippines. It covers 3 administrative regions3: Central Visayas4, Eastern Visayas and Western Visayas. It consists of 6 major islands (Bohol, Cebu, Leyte, Negros, Panay and Samar), mostly surrounded by the Visayan Sea, and is composed of 16 provinces1, according to Wikipedia page “Visayas”.31 Visayas is located at the middle part of the country; the 2 other geographical divisions of the Philippines are Luzon (in the northern part) and Mindanao (in the southern part).

3A region is the first-order administrative division in the Philippines. There are 17 regions in the Philippines, based on geographical, cultural and ethnological characteristics. It is further subdivided in provinces1, composed of cities28 and municipalities5 (or towns), which in turn, are divided into barangays29. The regions were initially identified in 1972, through Presidential Decree No. 1 of President Ferdinand Marcos. Since then, other regions have been created and some provinces have been “transferred” to another region. The information was obtained from Wikipedia page “Regions of the Philippines.”32 See a related post: Foreign Seniors Ask: WHAT ARE THE REGIONS OF THE PHILIPPINES?

4Central Visayas (Region VII) of the Philippines is a Philippine region3 located in the island group of Visayas2, with Cebu City as its regional center. It has 7 local government units33 (LGUs): Bohol, Cebu, Cebu City, Lapu-Lapu, Mandaue, Negros Oriental, and Siquijor. The information was obtained from Wikipedia page “Regions of the Philippines.”32

5A municipality is a small, single urban administrative division, or local government unit (LGU)33, in the Philippines which has corporate status and powers of self-government or jurisdiction as granted by law. It is a unit under a province1, subdivided into barangays29, and is called town, or bayan. In the Philippines, a municipality is headed by a mayor, a vice mayor and members of the Sangguniang Bayan (legislative branch). It can enact local policies and laws, enforce them, and govern its jurisdictions. It can enter into contracts and other transactions through its elected and appointed officials, and can tax as well. It enforces all local and national laws. The information was obtained from Wikipedia page “Municipalities of the Philippines.”34

6Miguel Lopez de Legazpi (1502-August 20, 1572), also known as El Adelantado and El Viejo (The Elder), was a Spanish navigator and governor who established the first Spanish settlement in the East Indies when his expedition crossed the Pacific Ocean, from the Viceroyalty of New Spain, in modern-day Mexico, and arrived in Cebu, in the Philippines. The information was obtained from Wikipedia page “Miguel Lopez de Legazpi.”35

7The Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Cebu is a Roman Rite36 archdiocese of the Roman Catholic Church in the Philippines, and one of the ecclesiastical provinces of the Roman Catholic Church in the country. It is composed of the entire civil province of Cebu. It is the Mother Church of the Philippines, established as a diocese on August 14, 1595, and as an archdiocese on April 28, 1934. The jurisdiction, Cebu, is considered as the fount of Christianity in the Far East. The seat of the archdiocese is the Metropolitan Cathedral and Parish of Saint Vitalis and of the Immaculate Conception, more commonly known as the Cebu Metropolitan Cathedral. The information was obtained from Wikipedia page “Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Cebu.”37

8The Recollects were a French reform branch of the Order of Friars Minor created at the end of the 15th century, commonly known today as the Franciscans, best known for their presence as missionaries in various parts of the world. They wore gray habits and pointed hoods, took vows of poverty, and devoted their lives to prayer, penance, and spiritual reflection. In 1897, Pope Leo XIII officially dissolved the Recollects order and integrated it as a part of the Franciscan order, officially changing their name to Friars Minor. The information was obtained from the Wikipedia page “Recollects”.38

9https://www.tripzilla.ph/siquijor-visita-iglesia-guide/102

10Our Lady of Divine Providence is a title of the Blessed Virgin Mary, Mother of Jesus, often traced to Her intervention and foresight for Jesus’ first miracle, turning water to wine at the wedding in Cana, to avoid an embarrassing situation for the newlywed couple. She is identified as Queen of the Home, with Her feast day celebrated on November 19, and devotion to Her originated in Italy. The information was obtained from the Wikipedia page “Our Lady of Divine Providence”.39

11A parish church, or parochial church, in Christianity, is the church which acts as the religious center of a parish in many parts of the world. The parish church, especially in rural areas, may play a significant role in community activities, often allowing its premises to be used for non-religious community events. The information was obtained from the Wikipedia page “Parish church”.40

12Saint Rita of Cascia, born Margherita Lotti (1381 – 22 May 1457), was an Italian widow and Augustinian nun venerated as a saint in the Roman Catholic Church. She joined the Augustinian community of religious sisters after her abusive husband was murdered. There, she was known for the efficacy of her prayers, often portrayed with a bleeding wound on her forehead, understood to indicate a partial stigmata, with various miracles attributed to her intercession. She was canonized on May 24, 1900 by Pope Leo XIII, and her feast day is celebrated on May 22. She was bestowed the title of Patroness of Impossible Causes, and also came to be known as the patroness of abused wives and heartbroken women. The information was obtained from the Wikipedia page “Saint Rita of Cascia”.41

13Our Lady of Mount Carmel is the title given to the Blessed Virgin Mary in Her role as Patroness of the Carmelite Order since the first Christian hermits lived on Mount Carmel in the Holy Land during the late 12th and early to mid-13th century. Readers, you can pray to Her for protection from harmful and dangerous situations, and deliverance of souls from Purgatory. The information was obtained from the Wikipedia page “Our Lady of Mount Carmel”.42

14Saint Augustine of Hippo (13 November 354 – 23 August 430) was a Roman African, early Christian theologian and philosopher from Numidia (a Roman province on the North African coast), whose writings influenced the development of Western Christianity and Western philosophy. He was Bishop of Hippo Regius (the ancient name of the modern city of Annaba, in Algeria) in North Africa and is viewed as one of the most important Church fathers in Western Christianity for his writings. He is the Patron of Augustinians, and is the Patron Saint for brewers, printers, theologians, and the alleviation of sore eyes. The information was obtained from the Wikipedia page “Saint Augustine of Hippo”.43

15Saint Francis of Assisi (1181/1182 – 3 October 1226), informally called Francesco, was an Italian Catholic friar, deacon and preacher. He founded the men’s Order of Friars Minor, the women’s Order of Saint Claire, the Third Order of Saint Francis, and the Custody of the Holy Land. He was canonized on July 16, 1228, and designated as the Patron Saint of Italy, and later became associated with the patronage of animals and the natural environment. The information was obtained from the Wikipedia page “Saint Francis of Assisi”.44

16A historical marker, commemorative plaque, historical plaque, or simply plaque, is a plate of metal, ceramic, stone, wood, or other material, typically attached to a wall, stone, or other vertical surface, and bearing  text or an image in relief, or both, to commemorate one or more persons, an event, a former use of the place, or some other thing. Many modern plaques are used to associate the location where the plaque is installed with the person, event, or item commemorated as a place worthy of visit. The information was obtained from the Wikipedia page “Commemorative plaque”.45

17Saint Isidore the Farm Laborer, or Isidore the Farmer (c. 1070 – 15 May 1130/1142) was a Spanish farm worker known for his piety towards the poor and animals. His feast day is celebrated on May 15, and is the Patron Saint of farmers, agriculture and day laborers. The information was obtained from the Wikipedia page “Saint Isidore the Farm Laborer”.46

18A National Historical Landmark of the Philippines is a place or an object that is associated with an event, achievement, characteristics or modification that presents a turning point or stage in history. The information was obtained from the Wikipedia page “Category: National Historical Landmarks of the Philippines”.47

19The National Historical Commission of the Philippines (NHCP) is a government agency of the Philippines which promotes Philippine history and cultural heritage through research, dissemination, conservation, sites management, and heraldry works, thereby inculcating awareness and appreciation of the noble deeds and ideals of our heroes and other illustrious Filipinos, instilling pride in the Filipino people, and rekindling the Filipino spirit through the lessons of history. The information was obtained from the Wikipedia page “National Historical Commission of the Philippines”.48

20A National Cultural Treasure (NCT) of the Philippines is a tangible (movable and immovable) or intangible heritage property declared by the National Commission for Culture and Arts49 and other cultural agencies such as the National Museum of the Philippines21, National Library of the Philippines50, and National Archives of the Philippines51. Such declarations are authorized under the National Cultural Heritage Act of 200952 and recognized within the Cultural Properties of the Philippines53 by the Philippine government. The title of NCT is the highest designation given to a “unique cultural property found locally, possessing outstanding historical, cultural, artistic and/or scientific value which is highly significant and important to the country and nation”.54 The information was obtained from the Wikipedia page “National Cultural Treasure”.55

21The National Museum of the Philippines is a government institution in the Philippines which serves as the educational, scientific and cultural institution in preserving the various permanent national collections featuring the ethnographic, anthropological, archaeological and visual artistry of the Philippines. It was formed on October 29, 1901, with headquarters in Padre Burgos Avenue, in Rizal Park, Ermita, Manila. Since 1998, it has been the regulatory and enforcement agency of the national government in restoring and safeguarding important cultural properties, sites and reservations throughout the Philippines. It is under the Department of Education and the National Commission for Culture and Arts49. The information was obtained from the Wikipedia page “National Museum of the Philippines”.56 Visit its website: www.nationalmuseum.gov.ph

22A UNESCO World Heritage Site (WHS) is a unique landmark, or geographically and historically identifiable place which is selected by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) as having cultural, historical, scientific, physical or other form of significance, and is legally protected by international treaties. Sites are demarcated by UNESCO as protected zones. The list is maintained by the International World Heritage Program administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 state parties which are elected by the General Assembly. Under certain conditions, listed sites can obtain funds from the World Heritage Fund. The information was obtained from the Wikipedia page “World Heritage Site”.57

23Baroque architecture began in Rome, Italy, in the late 16th century, which conveys grandeur and drama, most often used in palaces and churches. It includes curving forms, oval shapes, and a combination of concave and convex forms that make walls seem to undulate, or appear wavy, with a strong sense of motion. It groups things together like columns and decorative flourishes on building surfaces. Architectural elements are repeated across a surface. It uses distortion to make figures elongated, broken, or manipulated in some manner to make them stand out. Buildings have columns, sometimes topped with capitals and large volutes, scroll, or spiral forms. Sculptural wall elements will often project from the surface which is full of forms to increase the interplay of light and shadow across them. Inside, Baroque structures will often have ceilings painted in bright colors, made to fool one’s eye into believing one is looking at the sky. Buildings also have very rich surface treatments, including interiors with stucco58, various colored marbles, and gold gilt or thin sheets of gold applied to surfaces. Most Baroque churches have vaulted ceilings, supported by a series of interconnected arches.59

24Saint Vincent Ferrer (23 January 1350 – 5 April 1419) was a Valencian Dominican friar who gained acclaim as a missionary and logician. He is the Patron Saint of builders, prisoners, construction workers, plumbers, fishermen, and Spanish orphanages. He is honored as a saint of the Roman Catholic Church and other churches of Catholic traditions, like the Iglesia Filipina Independiente. The information was obtained from the Wikipedia page “Vincent Ferrer”.60

25“Siquijor,” accessed March 8, 2019, https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Siquijor

26“List of historical markers of the Philippines in Central Visayas”, accessed March 29, 2019, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_historical_markers_of_the_Philippines_in_Central_Visayas

27“List of Cultural Properties of the Philippines in Central Visayas”, accessed March 29, 2019, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Cultural_Properties_of_the_Philippines_in_Central_Visayas

28A city is the local government unit33 in the Philippines headed by a mayor elected by popular vote. A vice mayor serves as the presiding officer of the Sangguniang Panlungsod (city council), which acts as the city’s legislative body. The information was obtained from Wikipedia page “Cities of the Philippines.”61

29A barangay in the Philippines is the smallest administrative division in the Philippines, headed by a barangay captain, aided by a Sangguniang Barangay (Barangay Council). It is the native Filipino term for a district or village. It was formerly called a barrio. In a metropolitan area, a barangay is an inner city neighborhood, a suburb, or a suburban neighborhood. The word barangay originated from the term “balangay”, a kind of boat used by a group of Austronesian people who migrated to the Philippines. A number of barangays grouped together is called a district. The information was obtained from Wikipedia page “Barangay.”62

30“Provinces of the Philippines,” accessed July 17, 2018,  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Provinces_of_the_Philippines

31“Visayas,” accessed January 29, 2019, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Visayas

32“Regions of the Philippines,” accessed January 29, 2019, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Regions_of_the_Philippines

33A local government unit (LGU) in the Philippines is divided into 3 levels: provinces1 and independent cities63; component cities64 and municipalities5; and, barangays29, according to Wikipedia page “Local government in the Philippines”.65

34“Municipalities of the Philippines,” accessed January 29, 2019, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Municipalities_of_the_Philippines

35“Miguel Lopez de Legazpi,” accessed January 29, 2019, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Miguel_Lopez_de_Legazpi

36The Roman rite is the most widespread liturgical rite in the Catholic Church as well as the most popular and widespread Rite in all of Christendom. It has been adapted over the centuries and the history of its Eucharistic liturgy can be divided into 3 stages: the Pre-Tridentine Mass, Tridentine Mass, and the Mass of Paul VI (the current form of the Mass in the Catholic Church). The information was obtained from Wikipedia page “Roman rite.”66

37“Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Cebu,” accessed January 29, 2019, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roman_Catholic_Archdiocese_of_Cebu

38“Recollects,” accessed January 29, 2019, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Recollects

39“Our Lady of Divine Providence,” accessed January 29, 2019, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Our_Lady_of_Divine_Providence

40“Parish church,” accessed January 29, 2019, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Parish_church

41“Saint Rita of Cascia,” accessed January 29, 2019, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saint_Rita_of_Cascia

42“Our Lady of Mount Carmel,” accessed January 29, 2019, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Our_Lady_of_Mount_Carmel

43“Saint Augustine of Hippo,” accessed January 29, 2019, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saint_Augustine_of_Hippo

44“Saint Francis of Assisi,” accessed January 29, 2019, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saint_Francis_of_Assisi

45“Commemorative plaque,” accessed January 29, 2019, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Commemorative_plaque

46“Saint Isidore the Farm Laborer,” accessed January 29, 2019, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saint_Isidore_the_Farm_Laborer

47“Category: National Historical Landmarks of the Philippines,” accessed October 16, 2018, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Category:_National_Historical_Landmarks_of_the_Philippines

48“National Historical Commission of the Philippines,” accessed October 16, 2018, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/National_Historical_Commission_of_the_Philippines

49“National Commission for Culture and Arts,” accessed October 16, 2018,https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/National_Commission_for_Culture_and_Arts

50“National Library of the Philippines,” accessed October 16, 2018, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/National_Library_of_the_Philippines

51“National Archives of the Philippines,” accessed October 16, 2018,https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/National_Archives_of_the_Philippines

52“National Cultural Heritage Act,” accessed October 16, 2018, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/National_Cultural_Heritage_Act

53“Cultural properties of the Philippines,” accessed October 16, 2018,https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cultural_properties_of_the_Philippines

54www.primer.com.ph

55“National Cultural Treasure,” accessed October 16, 2018, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/National_Cultural_Treasure

56“National Museum of the Philippines,” accessed October 16, 2018, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/National_Museum_of_the_Philippines

57“World Heritage Site,” accessed October 16, 2018, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World_Heritage_Site

58Stucco refers to the cement-based and fine plaster used for coating wall surfaces or molding into architectural decorations. It hardens into a highly durable material that requires little maintenance and can be used to obtain different textures and finishes.67

59https://study.com/academy/lesson/italian-baroque-architecture-characteristics-examples.html

60“Vincent Ferrer,” accessed January 29, 2019, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vincent_Ferrer

61“Cities of the Philippines,” accessed January 29, 2019, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cities_of_the_Philippines

62“Barangay,” accessed January 29, 2019, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Barangay

63An independent city is a type of city28 in the Philippines which is administratively and legally not subject to a province1 so it does not share its tax revenues with any province. The national government and its agencies serve such a city through sub-offices of the region3 it belongs to. It is subdivided into 2: highly urbanized city68 or independent component city69. The information was obtained from Wikipedia page “Cities of the Philippines”61

64A component city is a type of city28 in the Philippines which does not meet the requirements of a highly urbanized city68. It is under the jurisdiction of a province1. If such a city is located along the boundaries of 2 or more provinces, it shall be considered part of the province of which it used to be a municipality5. The information was obtained from Wikipedia page “Cities of the Philippines”61

65“Local government in the Philippines,” accessed January 29, 2019, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Local_government_in_the_Philippines

66“Roman rite,” accessed January 29, 2019, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roman_rite

67https://www.thebalancesmb.com/choose-right-stucco-mix-844655

68A highly urbanized city (HUC) is a type of city28 in the Philippines with a minimum population of 200,000 as certified by the Philippine Statistics Authority (PSA), and with the latest annual income of at least 50 million pesos, according to Wikipedia page “Cities of the Philippines”.61 There are currently 33 such cities in the Philippines (see link – Foreign Seniors Ask: HOW MANY CITIES ARE THERE IN THE PHILIPPINES?).

69An independent component city (ICC) is a type of city28 in the Philippines which is autonomous from the province1 in which it is geographically located and has a charter that explicitly prohibits its residents to vote for provincial officials (unless allowed to do so). It does not meet the requirements of a highly urbanized city68. There are 5 such cities in the country: Cotabato, Dagupan, Naga, Ormoc, and Santiago. The information was obtained from Wikipedia page “Cities of the Philippines”61

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Seniors, Now You Know: WHAT ARE THE WORLD HERITAGE SITES IN THE PHILIPPINES?

We have always heard of the term World Heritage Site, but do we really know what it is all about and how it is selected? And, do we know the World Heritage sites in the Philippines? Well, look and wonder no more!

WHAT IS A WORLD HERITAGE SITE? HOW IS IT SELECTED?

A World Heritage Site (WHS) is a unique landmark, or geographically and historically identifiable place, which is selected by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) as having cultural, historical, scientific, physical or other form of significance, and is legally protected by international treaties.

Sites are demarcated by UNESCO as protected zones. The list is maintained by the International World Heritage Program administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 state parties which are elected by the General Assembly. Under certain conditions, listed sites can obtain funds from the World Heritage Fund.

As of July 2018, there are a total of 1,092 World Heritage sites across 167 countries (845 cultural, 209 natural, and 38 mixed properties). The top countries with the most sites are: Italy (54), China (53), Spain (47), France (44), Germany (44), India (37), and Mexico (35).

But how is a site selected? UNESCO mandates a nomination process. It starts when a country lists its significant cultural and natural sites to form a Tentative List. It can then place sites selected from that list into a Nomination File which is evaluated by the International Council on Monuments and Sites and the World Conservation Union. These bodies then make their recommendations to the World Heritage Committee. The Committee meets once a year to determine whether or not to inscribe each nominated property on the World Heritage List, and sometimes defers or refers the decision to request more information from the country that nominated the site.

Wow! Sites are well screened.and countries should be really proud of their World Heritage sites and protect/preserve them!

There are 10 selection criteria and a site must meet at least one of them to be included in the list:

CULTURAL CRITERIA:

  1. It represents a masterpiece of human creative genius and cultural significance;
  2. It exhibits an important interchange of human values, over a span of time, or within a cultural area of the world, on developments in architecture or technology, monumental arts, town-planning, or landscape design;
  3. It bears a unique, or at least, exceptional testimony to a cultural tradition, or to a civilization which is living, or which has disappeared;
  4. It is an outstanding example of a type of building, architectural, or technological ensemble or landscape which illustrates a significant stage in human history;
  5. It is an outstanding example of a type of a traditional human settlement, land-use, or sea-use which is representative of a culture, or human interaction with the environment especially when it has become vulnerable under the impact of irreversible change;
  6. It is directly or tangibly associated with events or living traditions, with ideas, or with beliefs, with artistic and literally works of outstanding universal significance;

NATURAL CRITERIA:

  1. It contains superlative natural phenomena or areas of exceptional natural beauty and aesthetic importance;
  2. It is an outstanding example representing major stages of Earth’s history, including the record of life, significant on-going geological processes in the development of landforms, or significant geomorphic or physiographic features;
  3. It is an outstanding example representing significant on-going ecological and biological processes in the evolution and development of terrestrial, fresh water, coastal and marine ecosystems, and communities of plants and animals; and,
  4. It contains the most important and significant natural habitats for in-situ conservation of biological diversity, including those containing threatened species of outstanding universal value from the point of view of science or conservation.

All information were obtained from the Wikipedia page “World Heritage site”.1

WHO CAN NOMINATE SITES TO BE WORLD HERITAGE SITES IN THE PHILIPPINES?

The National Commission for Culture and the Arts, National Museum of the Philippines, Department of Environment and Natural Resources, National Historical Commission of the Philippines, and other heritage agencies, are the prime nominators of the Philippines. The permanent Delegation of the Philippines to UNESCO, universities and NGOs can also nominate sites in the Tentative List.

I am just wondering why it took so long for the Philippines to have sites declared as such. Here is what I found out: in the 1990s, Filipino architect Augusto Villalon represented the Philippines in the UNESCO Committee and drafted the nomination dossiers of five heritage inscriptions, and all of them were declared as UNESCO World Heritage sites from 1993 to 1999 (see list below). However, after Villalon retired, the country had a 14-year drought in UNESCO World Heritage designations. Since 2014, six sites have been on the World Heritage site list, spanning nine locations: three are cultural and three are natural. In 2015, 28 sites in the Tentative List were revised, with 9 submissions for possible nomination in the future.

All information was obtained from the Wikipedia page “List of World Heritage sites in the Philippines”.2

WHAT ARE THE WORLD HERITAGE SITES IN THE PHILIPPINES?

Filipinos, be proud, we have six World Heritage sites and I will list them in order of recognition:

  1. 16th century Baroque Churches of the Philippines: San Agustin Church (City of Manila), Santa Maria Church (Ilocos Sur), Paoay Church (Ilocos Norte), and Miagao Church (Iloilo) – inscription: 1993; minor boundary modification: 2013, based on cultural criteria 2 and 4 (see previous topic). All four churches have been declared National Cultural Treasures of the Philippines3.

BeFunky-collage(l-r): Miagao Church, Paoay Church, San Agustin Church and Santa Maria Church (photographers: Wowleology and Patrick Roque, featured at http://www.en.wikipedia.org)

2. Tubbataha Reefs Natural Park (Palawan) -inscription: 1993; extension: 2009, based on natural criteria 7, 9 and 10 (see previous topic). It is said to have been in existence since the Pleistocene Epoch4. It is one of the New7Wonders of Nature5, an ASEAN Heritage Park6, and a Ramsar Wetland Site7. It is also located within the Palawan UNESCO Biosphere Resesrve8.

BeFunky-collage Tubbataha Reef (photographers: Nikswieweg, Ron Van Oers and Jun V Lao, featured at http://www.en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tubbataha_Reef)

3. Rice Terraces of the Philippine Cordilleras – inscription: 1995, based on cultural criteria 3, 4 and 5 (see previous topic). It is located in the Ifugao province of the Cordillera Region and dates back to 100 BC. The inscription includes 5 properties: the Bangaan Rice Terraces, Batad Rice Terraces (both in Banaue), Hungduan Rice Terraces (in Hungduan), Mayoyao Rice Terraces (in Mayoyao), and Nagacadan Rice Terraces (in Kiangan). These rice terraces have been declared as National Cultural Treasures of the Philippines3.

BeFunky-collageBatad Rice Terraces in Banaue and Nagacadan Rice Terraces in Kiangan (photographers: CEphoto, Uwe Aranas and Shubert Ciencia, featured at en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rice_Terraces_of_the_Philippine_Cordilleras)

4. The Historic City of Vigan (Ilocos Sur) – inscription: 1999, based on cultural criteria 2 and 4 (see previous topic). This 16th century site is one of the New7Wonders Cities9. The Mestizo Section, House of Father Jose Burgos10 and Leona Florentino11 have been declared as National Cultural Treasures of the Philippines3.

Calle_Crisologo,_Vigan_City-wikiCalle Crisologo, Vigan (photographer: Joelaldor,  http://www.en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vigan)

5. Puerto Princesa Subterranean River National Park (Palawan) – inscription: 1999, based on natural criteria 7 and 10 (see previous topic). It is said to have been in existence since the Pleistocene Epoch4. It is part of the Palawan UNESCO Biosphere Reserve8 and a declared Ramsar Wetland Site7.

puerto-princesa-underground-river-wikiPuerto Princesa Subterranean River National Park in Palawan; photo from http://www.en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Puerto_Princesa_Subterranean_River_National_Park

6. Mount Hamiguitan Range Wildlife Sanctuary (Davao Oriental) – inscription: 2014, based on natural criteria 10 (see previous topic). It is said to have been in existence since the Pleistocene Epoch4. It is declared as an ASEAN Heritage Park6.

mt-hamiguitan-wikiMount Hamiguitan inDavao Oriental; photo from http://www.en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mount_Hamiguitan

Perhaps, if you have not yet visited the aforementioned sites, why don’t you include these in your 2019 bucket list?

All information was obtained from the Wikipedia page “List of World Heritage sites in the Philippines”.2

THE TENTATIVE LIST FOR THE PHILIPPINES

There are 19 sites that are included in the Tentative List for the Philippines for the Philippine government to nominate as WHSs in the future:2

  1. Apo Reef National Park (Sulu Sea), based on natural criteria 7, 9 and 10 (see criteria topic). It is said to have been in existence since the Pleistocene Epoch4. This site is the second biggest producer of juvenile marine fishes in the world, next to the Tubbataha Reefs Natural Park.
  2. Baroques Churches of the Philippines (extension), based on cultural criteria 1, 3, 4, 5 and 6 (see criteria topic). – Boljoon Church (Cebu), Guiuan Church (Eastern Samar), Lazi Church (Siquijor), Loboc Church (Bohol), and Tumauini Church (Isabela) – All five 18th to 19th century baroque churches have been declared as National Cultural Treasures of the Philippines3.
  3. Batanes Protected landscapes and seascapes (mixed criteria, see criteria topic) – It is said to have been in existence since the Pleistocene Epochand 100 AD. The Mahatao Church of Batanes is a declared National Cultural Treasure of the Philippines3.
  4. Butuan Archeological Sites (Agusan del Norte), based on cultural criteria 3, 4 and 5 (see criteria topic). This 10th century site showcases the pre-Hispanic Rajahnate of Butuan12 as a nation with great expertise in boat-making, seafaring, and gold manufacturing.
  5. Chocolate Hills Natural Monument (Bohol), based on natural criteria 6 and 7 (see criteria topic). This site has been in existence since the Pleistocene Epoch4and is the focal property of the proposed Bohol Global Geopark Reserve.
  6. Coron Island Natural Biotic Area (Palawan), based on cultural criteria 3 and natural criteria 9 and 10 (see criteria topic). It is part of the Palawan UNESCO Biosphere Reserve8.
  7. El Nido – Taytay Managed Resource Protected Area, based on natural criteria 9 and 10 (see criteria topic). It is said to have been in existence since the Pleistocene Epoch4 and is within the Palawan UNESCO Biosphere Reserve8.
  8. Kabayan Mummy Burial Caves (Benguet), based on cultural criteria 1 – 6 (see criteria topic). This site has been in existence since 100 AD and has been listed by the World Monuments Fund13 for immediate international conservation. It is also declared as a National Cultural Treasure of the Philippines3.
  9. Mayon Volcano Natural Park (Albay), based on natural criteria 7 and 10 (see criteria topic). This site has been in existence since the Pleistocene Epochand is the central property of the Albay UNESCO Biosphere Reserve8.
  10. Mounts Iglit-Baco National Park (Mindoro), based on natural criteria 9 and 10 (see criteria topic). This site has been in existence since the Pleistocene Epoch4and is a declared ASEAN Heritage Park6.
  11. Mount Malindang Range Natural Park (Misamis Occidental), based on natural criteria 7, 9 and 10 (see criteria topic). This site has been in existence since the Pleistocene Epochand is a declared ASEAN Heritage Park6.
  12. Mount Mantalingajan Protected Landscape (Palawan), based on natural criteria 9 and 10 (see criteria topic). It is said to have been in existence since the Pleistocene Epoch4 and is part of the Palawan UNESCO Biosphere Reserve8.
  13. Mount Pulag National Park (Ifugao, Nueva Viscaya and Benguet), based on natural criteria 9 and 10 (see criteria topic). It is said to have been in existence since the Pleistocene Epoch4 and is the third highest point in the Philippines.
  14. Neolithic Shell Midden Sites in Lal-lo and Gattaran Municipalities (Cagayan), based on cultural criteria 2 – 5 (see criteria topic). This site has been in existence since the Neolithic Period14 and is the largest shell midden15 zone in the Philippine archipelago.
  15. Northern Sierra Madre Natural Park and outlying areas inclusive of the buffer zone (Isabela), based on natural criteria 9 and 10 (see criteria topic). It is said to have been in existence since the Pleistocene Epoch4 and is the largest national park in the Philippines.
  16. Paleolithic Archaeological Sites in Cagayan Valley – Awidon Mesa Formation Paleolithic Sites of Solana in Cagayan Province and the Callao Limestone Formation Paleolithic Sites of Peñablanca in Cagayan Province, based on cultural criteria 2 – 5 (see criteria topic). This site has been in existence since the Paleolithic Period16 and includes the location where the bone fragments of Callao Man, the oldest hominid17 found in the Philippines, was located.
  17. Petroglyphs18 and Petrographs19of the Philippines – Alab Petroglyphs of Mountain ProvinceAnda Peninsula Petrographs of Eastern BoholAngono Petroglyphs of Rizal, Peñablanca Petrographs of Cagayan Province, and Singnapan Caves Petrographs of southern Palawan, based on cultural criteria 3 (see criteria topic). These multiple sites have been in existence since the Paleolithic Period16. The Alab, Angono and Singnapan sites have been declared as National Cultural Treasures of the Philippines3. The site in Angono has been listed by World Monuments Fund13.
  18. The Tabon Cave Complex and all of Lipuun (Palawan), based on cultural criteria 2 – 5 (see criteria topic). This site has been in existence since the Paleolithic Period16 and is a declared National Cultural Treasure of the Philippines3 due to the Tabon Man20 discovery in the area. It was listed by the World Monuments Fund13.
  19. Turtle Islands Wildlife Sanctuary (Tawi-Tawi), based on natural criteria 9 and 10 (see criteria topic). It is said to have been in existence since the Pleistocene Epoch4 and is a major green sea turtle breeding and hatchery zone in the Asia-Pacific.

Another wow! These are 19 possible additions to our local travel bucket list!

The information was obtained from the Wikipedia page “List of World Heritage sites in the Philippines”.2

Did you find this post informative? I would like to hear from you. Have you ever been to any of these sites? Simply scroll to “Leave a Reply” and enter your comment in the box. Please scroll and click the “Like” tab and “Facebook” to share this post. Do not forget to follow me by clicking “Follow” on the lower right corner of your device.

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The following terms are defined for interested readers, especially non-Filipinos, those with “Senior-Moments”, and those too busy or lazy to Google such terms:

1“World Heritage site,” accessed October 16, 2018, https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_World_Heritage_site.

2“List of World Heritage sites in the Philippines,” accessed October 16, 2018, https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_World_Heritage_sites_in_the_Philippines.

3A National Cultural Treasure (NCT) of the Philippines is a unique tangible (movable and immovable) or intangible cultural property found locally, possessing outstanding historical, cultural, artistic and/or scientific value which is highly significant and important to the country and nation, declared by the National Commission for Culture and Arts and other cultural agencies such as the National Museum of the Philippines, National Library of the Philippines, and National Archives of the Philippines, authorized under the National Cultural Heritage Act of 2009 and recognized within the Cultural Properties of the Philippines by the Philippine government. This information was obtained from the Wikipedia page “List of National Cultural Treasures in the Philippines”.21

4Pleistocene Epoch, or Ice Age, is the geological epoch from about 2,588,000 to 11,700 years ago, spanning the world’s most recent period of repeated glaciations, according to the Wikipedia page “Pleistocene”.22

5New7Wonders of Nature (2007-2011) was an initiative led by Bernard Weber who organized the New 7 Wonders Foundation, and attracted 100 million voters worldwide to create a list of seven new natural wonders:  the Amazon Rainforest and River (Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuaodr, French Guiana, Guyana, Peru, Suriname and Venezuela), Halong Bay (Vietnam), Jeju Island (South Korea), Iguazú (Argentina/Brazil), Puerto Pricesa Subterranean River National Park (Philippines), Komodo Island (Indonesia), and Table Mountain (South Africa), according to Wikipedia page “New7Wonders of Nature”.23

6The Association for Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) Heritage Park is a project of the ASEAN Ministers of Environment to list heritage parks in the region of particular biodiversity importance or exceptional uniqueness among member states, to implement regional conservation and management action plans. Thirty-seven ASEAN Heritage Parks have been designated since the last inscription in November 2015. This information was obtained from the Wikipedia page “ASEAN Heritage Parks”.24

7Ramsar Wetland Site is a wetland recognized for its economic, cultural, scientific and recreational value, based on the Ramsar Convention, an international treaty for the conservation and sustainable utilization of wetlands, signed in the city of Ramsar, in Iran, in 1971, according to Wikipedia page “List of Ramsar sites in the Philippines”.25

8Biosphere Reserve is an internationally recognized area comprising terrestrial, marine and coastal ecosystems, nominated by a national government to the Man and Biosphere Programme, an intergovernmental program, launched in 1971 by the United Nations Economic, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), according to the Wikipedia page “Man and the Biosphere Programme”.26

9New7Wonders Cities (2011-2014) was another initiative led by Bernard Weber who organized the New 7 Wonders Foundation, and attracted voters worldwide to create a list of seven cities which best represent the achievements and aspirations of our global urban civilization: Beirut (Lebanon), Doha (Qatar), Durban (South Africa), Havana (Cuba), Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia), La Paz (Bolivia), and Vigan (Philippines). This information was obtained from the Wikipedia page “New7Wonders Cities”.27

10Fr. Jose Burgos (1837-1872) was a Filipino Catholic priest who was accused of mutiny by the Spanish colonial authorities, underwent a mock trial, and was executed in Manila, along with two other clergymen, according to the Wikipedia page “Jose Burgos”.28

11Leona Florentino (1849-1884) was a Filipino poet in the Spanish and Ilocano languages, considered “the mother of Philippine women’s literature” and the “bridge from oral to literary tradition,” according to the Wikipedia page “Leona Florentino”.29

12The Rajahnate of Butuan (before 1001-1756) was an Indic polity30 centered on present Mindanao island in the modern city of Butuan, in southern Philippines. It was known for gold mining, gold products, and its extensive trade network across the Nusantara area31, with trading relationships with the ancient civilizations of Cambodia, China, India, Indonesia, Japan, Persia and Thailand. This information was obtained from the Wikipedia page “Rajahnate of Butuan”.32

13World Monuments Fund is a private, international, non-profit organization dedicated to the preservation of historic architecture and cultural heritage sites around the world through fieldwork, advocacy, grantmaking, education, and training, according to the Wikipedia page “World Monuments Fund”.33

14The Neolithic Period (around 8000 – 2000 BC), or New Stone Age, is the period of the Stone Age which started in the Middle East, characterized by the development of agriculture, pottery, and the making of polished stone implements.34

15Shell middens are places where debris from eating shellfish (clams, oysters, whelks, mussels) and other food has accumulated over time, found on the coast, inland lakes, swamps, and river banks, indicative of Aboriginal activities in the past. They can contain: shellfish remains; bones of fish, birds, and land and sea mammals used for food; charcoal from campfires; and, tools made from stone, shell and bone.35

16The Paleolithic Period, or Old Stone Age (2.6 million – 10,000 years ago), is the period in human prehistory distinguished by the original development of stone tools, with humans living a nomadic lifestyle in small groups, and their survival depended heavily on their environment and climate.36

17A hominid is a primate of a family (Hominidae) of erect bipedal primate mammals that includes humans, their fossil ancestors and some of the great apes (the orangutan, gorilla, chimpanzee and bonobo).37

18Petroglyphs are images created by removing part of a rock surface by incising, picking, carving, or abrading, as a form of rock art, often associated with prehistoric people, according to the Wikipedia page “Petroglyph”.38

19Petrographs are drawings, writings, or inscriptions on stone, as a painting on a cave wall.39

20Tabon Man refers to collective remains discovered by Robert B. Fox, an American anthropologist of the national Museum of the Philippines, in the Tabon Caves in Lipuun Point in the municipality of Quezon, in the west coast of the province of Palawan, in the Philippines, on May 28, 1962. The remains, the fossilized fragments of a skull and jawbone of three individuals, were believed to be one of the earliest human remains known in the Philippines which date back to 16,500 years ago. This information was obtained from the Wikipedia page “Tabon Man”.40

21“List of National Cultural Treasures in the Philippines,” accessed October 16, 2018, https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_National_Cultural_Treasures_in_the_Philippines.

22 “Pleistocene,” accessed October 16, 2018, https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pleistocene.

23“New7Wonders of Nature,” accessed October 16, 2018, https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/New7Wonders_of_Nature.

24“ASEAN Heritage Parks,” accessed October 16, 2018, https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/ASEAN_Heritage_Parks.

25“List of Ramsar sites in the Philippines,” accessed October 16, 2018, https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Ramsar_sites_in_the_Philippines.

26“Man and the Biosphere Programme,” accessed October 16, 2018, https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Man_and_Biosphere_Programme.

27“New7Wonders Cities,” accessed October 16, 2018, https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/New7Wonders_Cities.

28“Jose Burgos,” accessed October 16, 2018, https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jose_Burgos.

29“Leona Florentino,” accessed October 16, 2018, https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leona_Florentino.

30Indic polity refers to traditional Southeast Asian political formations, such as federation of kingdoms under a center of domination, according to the Wikipedia page “Mandala (political model)”.41

31The Nusantara area, or Maritime Southeast Asia, is the local Malayo-Polynesian name for the region which consists of what is now Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore and Timor Leste. This information was obtained from the Wikipedia page “Maritime Southeast Asia”.42

32“Rajahnate of Butuan,” accessed October 16, 2018, https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rajahnate_of_Butuan.

33 “World Monuments Fund,” accessed October 16, 2018, https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/World_Monuments_Fund.

34www.ancient.eu and www.yourdictionary.com

35www.environment.nsw.gov.au

36www.diffen.com

37www.merriam-webster.com

38 “Petroglyph,” accessed October 16, 2018, https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Petroglyph.

39www.en.m.wiktionary.org

40“Tabon Man,” accessed October 16, 2018, https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tabon_Man.

41“Mandala (political model),” accessed October 16, 2018, https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mandala_(political_model).

42“Maritime Southeast Asia,” accessed October 16, 2018, https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maritime_Aouthwast_Asia.