SIQUIJOR: THE MYSTICAL ISLAND AND HEALING PARADISE

Siquijor is a small island province1 of the Philippines located in the Central Visayas2 Region (Region3 VII)4. The people are called Siquijodnons.

Geographically, Cebu is to the north, Negros to the west, Bohol to the northeast, Camiguin5 to the east, and to the south, across the Bohol Sea, is Mindanao.

Siquijor is so intriguing, mysterious, exciting to explore – the reasons why I included it in my local travel bucket list. We arrived in this island a bit hesitant, yet ready to explore its natural beauty and culture. A couple of my friends who knew I would visit this island warned me about its reputation of sorcery and magic, even if they themselves have not visited it. We heard stories about what happened to a couple of tourists who were physically affected during and after their visits, but all these needed to be verified. Talk about shady reputation!

We sought bloggers and vloggers, and became assured and convinced with what we read and saw, so we were bent on pursuing this vacation. However, to be on the safe side, my companions and I made a pact not to say anything negative, never to point towards certain places or things, and to just enjoy the view and destinations.

Here are 20 facts about Siquijor, the province1:

1. It is the smallest province in the Central Visayas Region2, and the third smallest province in the Philippines in terms of population and land area, next to Camiguin5 and Batanes6 (the smallest) at 327 sq.k. or 126 sq.mi., and a coastline 102 km (63 mi) long.

2. This province has 6 municipalities7: Enrique Villanueva, Larena, Lazi, Maria, San Juan, and Siquijor (the capital, and yes, it is also called Siquijor6). See a related post: Now You Know: THE SIX MUNICIPALITIES OF SIQUIJOR

3. This island provinceis indeed mysterious! First is the origin of the island. They say the island surfaced from the depths of the ocean during a great storm which once engulfed the region3. This storm was followed by a strong earthquake that shook the earth and sea. Amidst the lightning and thunder, an island rose from the depths of the ocean and became Siquijor island. In fact, how can you explain that during modern times, farmers have unraveled giant shell casings under farm plots?

4. Siquijor is commonly called The Mystical Island and is associated with mystic traditions. It is widely believed since the olden times that the natives of this island were men of mystery and magic who can conjure and control spirits. There are folk healers whose practices include spiritualism, along with the preparation of brews and herbal concoctions for love and health problems.

5. It has a long-time reputation as a place of magic, sorcery, mystical traditions. It is also well known for its festivals that focus on healing rituals where incantations are sung, while the old folks make potions out of herbs, roots, insects, and tree barks. However, when we visited the island for a day on March 2019, we only saw love potions sold in small bottles and mystic wine in large bottles, along with voodoo dolls and other local souvenirs.

The Siquijodnons are predominantly Roman Catholics yet their island province1 is still known as The Mystical Island. Healers and herbalists all over the country annually come together in this island during Holy Week to perform healing, and to participate in the preparation of concoctions made from a variety of tree barks, roots, herbs, insects and other ingredients. These are gathered from the forests, sea, caves, and cemeteries during the 7 Fridays of the Lenten season. The resulting brews are deemed to have healing powers. Thus, it is also called The Healing Paradise.

Perhaps, a tourist needs to visit this island during Holy Week to witness this side of the culture of Siquijor.

6. During the Spanish colonial period in the Philippines, the Spaniards called Siquijor Isla del Fuego (Island of Fire) because the island gave off an eerie glow at night from the great swarms of fireflies that lived in the branches of the abundant tugas or molave8. See my post: Now You Know – SIQUIJOR: ITS LEGEND, HISTORY, TRADITIONS, AND BELIEFS to know more about this island’s legend, tradition, history and beliefs.

7. Each municipalityshowcases centuries-old Catholic churches, amidst the mystical traditions of the early Siquijodnons way before the Spaniards arrived. The province1 has some of the oldest churches in the Philippines: Our Lady of Divine Providence Church (Santa Maria Church) in the municipality  of Maria, established in 1887; Our Lady of Mount Carmel Church (Mount Carmel Church) in the municipality of Enrique Villanueva; Augustine Parish (Macapilay Church) in the municipality  of San Juan, built in 1863; St. Francis of Assisi Church (Siquijor Church) in the municipality  of Siquijor, established in 1783; St. Isidore the Farmer Church (Lazi Church), or San Isidro Labrador Parish Church in the municipality  of Lazi, founded in 1857 (see a related post: SAN ISIDRO LABRADOR PARISH CHURCH AND CONVENT, SIQUIJOR); and, Saint Vincent Ferrer Church (Larena Church) in the municipality  of Larena, erected in 1836. See a related post featuring all these churches: Now You Know: SIQUIJOR’S 6 ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCHES

Today, this province1 showcases the unique Philippine culture of blending Catholicism with traditional religious practices – a major part of its people’s cultural heritage, identity and character.

8. This coralline island is predominantly hilly, with many places reaching the sea, producing steep cliffs, and creating breathtaking panoramic views, perfect for your photos! It is surrounded by limestone materials, mangroves, coral reefs, and a coastline which boasts of white sand beaches that stretch up to 102 km. See related posts about two beaches I visited: SERENE AND SPONTANEOUS SALAGDOONG BEACH, SIQUIJOR and PALITON BEACH: THE LITTLE BORACAY OF SIQUIJOR.

9. Siquijor’s central portion is mountainous. The highest point of the island is Mount Malabahoc, locally known as Mount Bandila-an, at 628 meters (2,060 ft) in elevation. One can still see fossils and shells on this mountain.

10. This island provinceis proud of its 400-year old Balete9 tree, located in Barangay10 Campalanas, in the town of Lazi. That is one of the oldest trees in the country and what makes it unique is the spring water flowing from its roots, which was turned into a natural fish spa for tourists. See a related post: ENCHANTING 400-YEAR-OLD BALETE TREE AND FISH SPA, SIQUIJOR

11. The island has wonderful waterfalls like the Cambugahay Falls in the town of Lazi which I was able to visit (see a related post: TAKE A TARZAN-LIKE DIVE AT CAMBUGAHAY FALLS, SIQUIJOR!). Cangbangag Falls, in the town of Larena, and Lugnason Falls, in the town of San Juan, are two other falls you can visit.

Cambugahay falls-labelled                                                            Cambugahay Falls

12. I was surprised to know that it has 46 caves: 4 in the town of Enrique Villanueva, 17 in Lazi, 6 in Maria, 5 in San Juan, and 12 in Siquijor. The only town without a cave is Larena (based on my research).

13. This island provincewas dubbed as the “Marine Paradise of Central Visayas4” after it was proclaimed a marine reserve11 and tourist destination in 1978 by Proclamation No. 1810. In line with this, the Philippine Tourism Authority (PTA) was charged with converting it into a principal tourist zone.

14. Fishing is the prime occupation, with Bohol Strait, Mindanao Sea and Siquijor Sea as the chief fishing areas. Fishponds are 15 hectares long, while swamp lands cover 71 hectares.

15. The island has 3 seaports: Larena (the biggest and main entry point of the province), Lazi and Siquijor.

16. The main spoken language is Cebuano, with English often used as a second language. Filipino is understood but rarely used and some Spanish words are spoken and understood.

17. The coral reefs ringing the island offer some of the best diving in the Philippines for snorkelers and scuba divers. Dive courses are conducted by several dive operators in this island.

18. Fossils of the giant clam, Tridacna, are often encountered in the plowed inland fields of this island. On the hilltops, there are numerous shells of the molluscan species presently living in the seas around the island. Siquijor was probably formed quite recently, geologically speaking.

19. Panglao Island, which is part of the province of Bohol and more than 80 km away, has a similar composition of the soil which is found throughout the whole island of Siquijor.

20. There are many festivals held in this island: Tubod Festival(March 19), Lenten Festival of Herbal Preparation (Holy Thursday and Good Friday, dates vary), Folk Healing Festival (Black Saturday, date varies), Tang Alap (Easter Sunday, date varies), Canoan Festival (May 3), Saging Festival (May 15), Lubi Festival (May 21/24), Pamukad Festival (July 16), Bugwas Festival (between August 27-30), Araw ng Siquijor with Solili (third week of September, including September 17), Dilaab Festival (October 1). See my post: Now You Know: THE FESTIVALS OF SIQUIJOR

See my other posts about Siquijor:

SAN ISIDRO LABRADOR PARISH CHURCH AND CONVENT, SIQUIJOR

Now You Know: CANG-ISOK – SIQUIJOR’S OLDEST KNOWN HOUSE

GET BEWITCHED AT HAPITANAN, SIQUIJOR

The information was obtained from the Wikipedia page “Siquijor”12 and “List of festivals in the Philippines”13, https://en.wikivoyage.org/wiki/Siquijor, https://dumagueteinfo.com/other-destinations/siquijor-island/siquijor-travel-guide/, https://www.tripzilla.ph/siquijor-visita-iglesia-guide/102, https://www.vigattintourism.com/tourism/articles/Siquijor-An-Island-that-Rose-from-the-Sea, and https://www.cocogrovebeachresort.com/special-events/siquijor-fiestas/

Now, Senior Citizens, you might ask, “How do I get to Siquijor”? Sorry, there are no direct flights to Siquijor, except from Mactan-Cebu International Airport, using Air Juan14. Air Juan has the only daily flight to and from Siquijor from Cebu: Mactan-Cebu International Airport to Siquijor Airport (ETD 12:50 pm – ETA 1:30 pm) and Siquijor Airport (ETD 2:00 pm – ETA 2:40 pm). It only takes 40 minutes via a 9-seater Cessna Grand Caravan land plane!

Sigh, this island province, to-date, has only a small airport, about 5 km west of Siquijor town. Construction to expand it into a full airport capable of handling international slights started in 2017, but as of early 2019, the project appears far from completion.15

The nearest reasonably large airport is in Dumaguete City16 which has no international flights, but is well-connected to domestic destinations, including all main airports for international arrivals. The main air hub of the region is Mactan-Cebu International Airport in Metro Cebu. Since mid-2018, the new Panglao Airport in Bohol province also handles international flights. A tourist can generally reach Siquijor by ferry from any of these places.15

What we did was fly from Manila to Dumaguete City16, with a large airport near this island, 25 km away, about a little over an hour’s flight only. We stayed there for a couple of days, then rode an OceanJet 17 from the Dumaguete Port to Siquijor (PHP380, one way), for a day tour only. Of course, seniors get a discount so do not forget to bring your Senior Citizen cards!

And, dearest Seniors, if you plan to visit Siquijor, why not buy plane tickets during promotional sales of airlines or travel agencies to get the lowest possible price?

My group rode a tricycle to the Dumaguete City16 Port, took the first trip of the fast OceanJet17 at 7:20 am, and the trip only took about an hour. An LED screen provides a movie or you can just play a game in your cellphone or IPad, go over and edit pictures/videos which you took the previous day/s, or take a nap.

You can also Google other fast crafts or ferries for your Dumaguete-Siquijor-Dumaguete trip.

You can also take the slower and cheaper ferries, taking about 2 hours, one way. It is best to book tickets a day beforehand to be sure you have seats and need not wake up so early to fall in line, especially for the first trip in the morning.

Joining the first trip is best if you plan not to stay overnight in Siquijor and be aware of travel time from your last tour-stop and the Larena seaport.

If you are coming from another place, like Manila or neighboring islands, check transportation options and schedules online, and book a ferry a day before for your visit to this island.

You need to pay a Terminal Fee of PHP25 per person before leaving the Dumaguete16 port.

I know what your next question is: how do I explore the island, especially since I will not stay overnight?

Well, upon arrival at the port in Siquijor, you have several options for a day tour of the island, depending on your budget, driving skills, length of stay in the island, and the number of persons in your group:

1. For groups with seniors and kids, it would be best to hire an air-conditioned van at PHp3,500 per day. My group availed of one-day Siquijor Coastal Tour (see: I will place a link here about the main post) offered by Yane’s Adventures Van Services18 after we arrived at the port of Siquijor.

We arrived at the port of Siquijor and walked towards its gate. As expected, we encountered different Siquijodnons who offered island tours. We did not know anyone but we were lucky to have chosen Yane’s18 and its very cheerful and accommodating driver, Jimmy Bueno.

Jimmy showed us a laminated map of the island, complete with the various natural and man-made attractions we could see. However, we could only stay for less than 24 hours, so we selected destinations based on our online research among bloggers and Jimmy’s experience as a driver in the island, with the goal of not missing our 3:50 pm boat schedule back to Dumaguete City16.

There were so many natural and historical destinations but our group decided to choose only 6 places to visit. See our experience below.

2. Your group can book a tricycle island tour for PHP1,000 for one whole day. The tricycle is the main mode of transportation in the island. You can negotiate the places to be included in your tour so you better research ahead of time the “must visit” destinations. NOTE: Taking the regular tricycle from one town to another in this island might be more expensive so negotiate among the tricycle drivers just outside the port for a “special trip”.

3. You can rent a motorcycle and explore the island on your own, if you can drive. Plan your route before your arrival and when in doubt, or in case you get lost, the locals are hospitable and can point you to the right direction. Just Google bloggers regarding this matter because I have no personal experience about this mode of transportation. I was told that you will be asked to fill up a form.

Rest assured that the circumferential coastal road of the island is safe and well maintained. I did not notice but just a heads up because I read somewhere that there are no street lights in the island, so it might not be safe to drive alone at night.

4. There are also jeepneys with regular routes between municipalities as well as tricycles within a municipality7. This could prove to be cheaper to go around the island, especially if you will stay for more than a day. However, you may need to negotiate “special trips” for certain destinations you may want to visit that are far from the circumferential road.

For tourists staying at least overnight in the island, you can also inquire and arrange tours at the front desk of your resort.

My group had a chance to go to this island only for a day tour on March 2019, using a fast craft of OceanJet17. We bought a ticket upon arrival in Dumaguete16 so we will not have difficulty waking up very early to do all the ticketing right before boarding in the morning.

We skipped a lot of sites near the Siquijor port but we briefly stopped at the “I love Siquijor” sign for a group picture.

We only chose six destinations thereafter, for our SIQUIJOR COASTAL TOUR since the schedule of the OceanJet17 back to Dumaguete City16 was at 3:50 pm:

1. Paliton Beach, dubbed the “Little Boracay19of Siquijor”, located in the municipality7 of San Juan – see: PALITON BEACH: THE LITTLE BORACAY OF SIQUIJORPaliton beach-Siquijor-labelled

2. The 400 year old Balete tree and Fish Spa, located in the municipalityof Lazi. See ENCHANTING 400-YEAR-OLD BALETE TREE AND FISH SPA, SIQUIJOR.Balete tree-Siquijor-labelled

3. Hapitanan, where you can show your best witch poses and enjoy fresh coconut (buko), among others, also located in Lazi – see:  GET BEWITCHED AT HAPITANAN, SIQUIJORHapitanan-Siquijor-labelled

4. San Isidro Labrador Church and Convent, also located in Lazi – see: SAN ISIDRO LABRADOR PARISH CHURCH AND CONVENT, SIQUIJORSan Isidro Labrador-Convent-labelledLeft photo by Greg, 3 February 2010, featured in commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:St_Isidore_the_Laborer_Church_in_Lazi,_Siquijor.jpg

We were hungry almost midday and we asked our kind driver, Jimmy, where to eat fresh seafood along the way. He brought us to a small, open restaurant called El Monte Café & RestaurantIMG_3776

It offers an a la carte menu consisting of seafood, chicken and vegetables dishes as well as breakfast and budget options. IMG_3774

It was still early for lunch so there were no customers around.  We were also told that the seafood supplier did not deliver that day, so seafood dishes were not available. Anyway, we all ordered Chicken Barbecue. We also ordered Chopsuey to be shared. It took some time for the chicken orders to be grilled but we were satisfied with the degree of doneness, presentation, and taste when they were served. The chopsuey, however, had an average taste perhaps due to the milky looking, yet viscous sauce, but at least the vegetables were not that overcooked.Food-Siquijor-labelled

I strongly recommend that you plan where to eat for your day tour, with the help of your driver/tour guide. We just wanted a quick seafood meal and settled for what was available.

5. Cambugayan Falls, a three-tiered waterfalls where you can swim and take the Tarzan-Dive Challenge, also located in Lazi – see: TAKE A TARZAN-LIKE DIVE AT CAMBUGAHAY FALLS, SIQUIJOR!

Take the Tarzan-like Challenge at Cambugahay Falls

6. Salagdoong Beach, where you can swim, sunbathe, and take the Cliff Dive Challenge, located in the municipalityof Maria – see: SERENE AND SPONTANEOUS SALAGDOONG BEACH, SIQUIJORSalagdoong Beach-labelled

What I liked about our day tour of the island is the well-paved and wide Circumferential Road of the province. Most popular attractions were along this road, or can be easily accessed from it.

Souvenirs and pasalubong20 are available in several places in the island so it is best to ask your guide where to buy handicrafts, key chains, t-shirts, herbal oils, local delicacies, etc.

Love potions-Siquijor-labelled

Siquijor souvenirs-labelled

We did not witness any witchcraft, sorcery, or scary incidents. For me, based on our short stay in this island, the mystique of this province1 lies in its beautiful waterfalls, enchanting beaches, century-old trees, relaxing fish spa, interesting history, and warm hospitality of its people. Trust Tita S!

Our driver, Jimmy, respectfully reminded us to finish early in our last destination so we will not be late for the 3:50 pm departure of our OceanJet17 ride back to Dumaguete City16. He was also so kind to get seats for us, instead of us having to fall in line to do so. So, dearest future visitors of Siquijor, look for Jimmy as your driver. He is so professional, accommodating and pleasant.

You need to pay a Terminal Fee of PHP25 before leaving the Larena Port of Siquijor. Senior Citizens are discounted so be sure to be ready with your Senior Citizen cards. (I will place a picture here.)

The following are tips when visiting Siquijor:

1. Have an open mind. Set aside the reputed negative image of this island. Google bloggers and vloggers who went ahead to be assured that you will enjoy your stay. Plan the date/s, how long you will stay, and select destinations wisely. Do not expect first class facilities in beaches, falls and other places you visit. Just appreciate its simple set up and make this trip your chance to commune with nature.

2. Check the weather beforehand. Visit this island during the summer months, preferably on a weekday, to avoid the influx of locals in the beaches and to be sure there are no typhoons to spoil your vacation.

3. Book your ferry or fast craft trip ahead of time to be sure you will have seats and need not wake up early to line up for a ticket going to this island province, especially if you will take the first trip in the morning.

4. For snorkelers, bring your own snorkeling gear and flippers.

5. Do not forget to apply sunscreen before your trip. Bring your sunscreen so you can reapply when needed.

6. Bring enough PHP cash. Research ahead of time the location of banks in certain towns for ATM and foreign card transactions. Do not forget small amounts like PHP10, 20, 50 for entrance, parking, terminal fees, and other minor fees.

ATM machines are available in Philippine National Bank (PNB) Larena (but only Visa cards are accepted) and Metro Bank along the main road in Siquijor town, accepting MasterCard and Visa.15 https://en.wikivoyage.org/wiki/Siquijor

7. Fully charge your cell phones, cameras, power banks, and extra batteries.

8. Bring your own snacks, refillable water bottles, bamboo/metal drinking straws, etc., to destinations, but just be sure to dispose trash in proper bins. Be eco-friendly!

9. For spelunking (cave exploration as a hobby), always wear helmets and clothes which can still be comfortable when wet. Wear appropriate and comfortable footwear. Bring flashlights and extra clothing.

10. Secure belongings using a waterproof container, or designate a companion for the safekeeping of your group’s belongings.

11. Seniors, do not forget to bring your Senior Citizen card with you all the time to avail of your discount.

12. Go early to popular destinations to avoid large crowds.

13. It would be best to hire a “special trip”, i.e., a vehicle just for you and your companions for the day; because I was told that there is a lack of public transportation in the island. But no worries, once you exit the Siquijor port, there will be offers all over, so negotiate well, based on researched range of rates.

14. Just to be on the safe side, assign a companion to watch over your belongings when you swim or snorkel. Someone whispered to me that the crime rate in the island is very low. They say that locals are afraid to steal or do something bad because of their fear of the “needle”, referring to being the targets of the voodoo dolls used by certain locals. Perhaps, other tourists might be the culprits, who knows?! Just be careful, ok?

Seniors, Siquijor can be toured for a day, you just have to prioritize the places you will visit. If you want to see more than what we experienced, then add a day or two. Sorry, but we did not encounter any sorcerer or witch. Instead, we found the island-province very peaceful, safe, unpolluted, and the locals as hospitable, cheerful and friendly.

Bottomline, Siquijor is indeed a Mystical island. Be awed and fascinated by its raw beauty – its history, culture, white sand and pristine beaches, falls, hundred-year-old trees, springs, caves, mountains, and hospitable people. Yes, it is also a Healing Paradise! My visit of the island was therapeutic in a way – the captivating natural beauty of the Siquijor, the fresh breeze amidst the clear water sand white sand beaches we visited, such a peaceful island – all these, and more, restored the good vibes I needed to feel good and happy. This island is indeed so beautiful, with its unique character and simple charm! Perhaps I should revisit to see the fireflies at night when in season, and during one of its festivals to unravel more of its spiritualism and mystic, and then some!

You can visit the provincial government’s website for the list of accredited accommodations and their room rates. I cannot open the website cited by Wikipedia, www.siquijor.gov.ph, but I found its Facebook account: https://www.facebook.com/siquijorgov/.12

The Provincial Government of Siquijor holds office at the New Capitol Building, Pulangyuta, Siquijor 6225, Siquijor, with telephone numbers (035) 480-9173 and 480-9076, telefax (035) 344-2088.

We paid for our Siquijor Coastal Tour and all comments are personal, based on my experience in this province1. At this point, I can say that I demystified the mystical island of Siquijor!

Did you find this post informative? I would like to hear from you re your visit to Siquijor. Simply scroll and click “Leave a comment”. Do share this post with your Facebook friends, follow me by clicking on the bottom right corner of your device, and do not forget to like this post. Thank you.

– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –

The following terms are defined for interested readers, especially non-Filipinos, those with “Senior-Moments”, and those too busy or lazy to Google such terms:

1A province is the primary administrative and political division in the Philippines. It is the second-level administrative sub-division of a region3. There are 81 provinces (called “lalawigan”) in the Philippines. Each province is governed by an elected legislature called the Sangguniang Panlalawigan and by an elected governor. Remember, a province in the Philippines is divided into cities9 and municipalities5 (or towns), which in turn, are divided into barangays10, formerly called barrios. The information was obtained from Wikipedia page “Provinces of the Philippines.”21 See a related post: Foreign Seniors Ask: WHAT ARE PROVINCES IN THE PHILIPPINES?

2Visayas is one of the 3 major geographical divisions of the Philippines. It covers 3 administrative regions3: Central Visayas4, Eastern Visayas and Western Visayas. It consists of 6 major islands (Bohol, Cebu, Leyte, Negros, Panay and Samar), mostly surrounded by the Visayan Sea, and is composed of 16 provinces1, according to Wikipedia page “Visayas”.22 Visayas is located at the middle part of the country; the 2 other geographical divisions of the Philippines are Luzon (in the northern part) and Mindanao (in the southern part).

3A region is the first-order administrative division in the Philippines. There are 17 regions in the Philippines, based on geographical, cultural and ethnological characteristics. It is further subdivided in provinces1, composed of cities and municipalities7 (or towns), which in turn, are divided into barangays10. The regions were initially identified in 1972, through Presidential Decree No. 1 of President Ferdinand Marcos. Since then, other regions have been created and some provinces have been “transferred” to another region. The information was obtained from Wikipedia page “Regions of the Philippines.”23 See a related post: Foreign Seniors Ask: WHAT ARE THE REGIONS OF THE PHILIPPINES?

4Central Visayas (Region VII) of the Philippines is a Philippine region3 located in the island group of Visayas2, with Cebu City as its regional center. It has 7 local government units24 (LGUs): Bohol, Cebu, Cebu City, Lapu-Lapu, Mandaue, Negros Oriental, and Siquijor. The information was obtained from Wikipedia page “Regions of the Philippines.”23

5Camiguin is the second smallest province1 in the Philippines, both in population and land area, after Batanes6. This island province is located in the Bohol Sea, geographically part of the Northern Mindanao Region (Region X), and formerly part of Misamis Oriental province. The provincial capital is Mambajao, also the province’s largest municipality7 in area and population. It is famous for its sweet lanzones (see related post – I will place the link here) to which the annual week-long Lanzones Festival is dedicated, held every third week of October. The information was obtained from Wikipedia page “Camiguin.”25

6Batanes is the smallest province1 in the Philippines, both in population and land area. This archipelago province is the northernmost province of the country, and is located in the Cagayan Valley Region (Region II). Its capital is Basco, located in the island of Batan. The entire province is listed in the UNESCO tentative list for inscription in the list of World Heritage Sites (see a related post – I will place a link here). Seven intangible heritage elements of the Ivatan26 are undergoing a process to be included in the UNESCO Intangible Cultural Heritage Lists between 2018-2025. The information was obtained from Wikipedia page “Batanes.”27

7A municipality is a small, single urban administrative division, or local government unit (LGU)24, in the Philippines which has corporate status and powers of self-government or jurisdiction as granted by law. It is a unit under a province1, subdivided into barangays10, and is called town, or bayan. In the Philippines, a municipality is headed by a mayor, a vice mayor and members of the Sangguniang Bayan (legislative branch). It can enact local policies and laws, enforce them, and govern its jurisdictions. It can enter into contracts and other transactions through its elected and appointed officials, and can tax as well. It enforces all local and national laws. The information was obtained from Wikipedia page “Municipalities of the Philippines.”28

8Molave is a large Philippine timber tree (Vitex parviflora), known for its dense, durable, yellow wood. It was once used extensively in furniture, boats, etc. as a valuable construction material, but due to habitat loss and overharvesting, it is now classified as endangered by the Philippine Department of Environment and Natural Resources. The information was obtained from Wikipedia page “Vitex parviflora.”29

9A balete tree, balite or baliti, refers to several species of the trees endemic to the Philippines, from the genus Ficus (with large, thick, or stiff leaves), of the family Moraceae. Members of this genus are characterized by possessing a white to yellowish latex, a unique inflorescence, and a distinctive pollination system, i.e., involving a specific wasp species (i.e., fig wasp of the family Agaonidaeas pollinators). Its aerial roots which reach the soil grow into it and thicken into additional trunks. The growing roots encircle the host tree and appear to strangle the latter. The host tree eventually dies and rots, leaving a hollow cylinder of roots, which have now become the trunks of the balete tree.30

10A barangay in the Philippines is the smallest administrative division in the Philippines, headed by a barangay captain, aided by a Sangguniang Barangay (Barangay Council). It is the native Filipino term for a district or village. It was formerly called a barrio. In a metropolitan area, a barangay is an inner city neighborhood, a suburb, or a suburban neighborhood. The word barangay originated from the term “balangay”, a kind of boat used by a group of Austronesian people who migrated to the Philippines. A number of barangays grouped together is called a district. The information was obtained from Wikipedia page “Barangay.”31

 11A marine reserve is a type of marine protected area (MPA)32 that has legal protection against fishing or development, according to Wikipedia page “Marine reserve”.33  The removal or destruction of natural and cultural resources in prohibited. It is created for a variety of purposes: to protect the spawning grounds of certain species, and as an outdoor laboratory that allows scientists to compare the undisturbed areas of a reserve to those impacted by human activities.34

12“Siquijor,” accessed March 8, 2019, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Siquijor

13“List of festivals in the Philippines,” accessed March 8, 2019, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_festivals_in_the_Philippines

14www.airjuan.com

15https://en.wikivoyage.org/wiki/Siquijor

16Dumaguete City is the capital and most populous city35 of the province1 of Negros Oriental, the neighboring province of Siquijor, located about 100 km to the west. It is nicknamed The City of Gentle People because of the hospitality of the locals. It is also called a University City because of the presence of 4 universities and a number of colleges, prominent of which is Siliman University, the first Protestant and American university in the country and Asia. It is also known for its beach resorts and dive sites, dolphin watching, and Apo Island’s giant turtles and awesome corals. It was also named the Best Place to Retire in the Philippines for 2018 by the Philippine Retirement Authority. The information was obtained from Wikipedia page “Dumaguete.”36

17Ocean Jet is the term for the high-speed water craft, owned and operated by Ocean Fast Ferries, Inc., a wholly owned Filipino corporation, offering ferry services to 10 destinations in the Philippines – Bacolod (Negros Occidental), Camotes Island and Cebu City (Cebu), Dumaguete16 (Negros Oriental), Iloilo City (Iloilo), Ormoc (Leyte), Larena (Siquijor) and Tagbilaran (Bohol), Batangas City (Batangas), and another in Calapan (Oriental Mindoro), with a fleet of 17 vessels. It was founded in 1995, then called Socor Shipping Lines (till 2001), with headquarters in Cebu City. The information was obtained from Wikipedia page “Ocean Fast Ferries.”37 Visit its website: www.oceanjet.net/

18Yane’s Adventures Van Services information – Address: Pangi, Siquijor, Siquijor; Contact numbers: 09052133123, 09069732330 and 09183124461, look for Jade Jumawan Pestillos, and request for our very accommodating and cheerful driver, Jimmy Bueno.

19Boracay is a small island at the northwestern tip of Panay Island, in the Western Visayas Region of the Philippines. It is administered by the Tourism Infrastructure and Enterprise Zone Authority (TIEZA) and the provincial government of Aklan. It is known the world over for its fine white sand beaches, and was repeatedly chosen and awarded as one of the top destinations in the world for relaxation. The information was obtained from Wikipedia page “Boracay.”38

20 Pasalubong is the Filipino term for the tradition of giving gifts or souvenirs, from a destination visited by a Filipino, to family and friends upon one’s return home.

21“Provinces of the Philippines,” accessed July 17, 2018, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Provinces_of_the_Philippines

22“Visayas,” accessed January 29, 2019,  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Visayas

23“Regions of the Philippines,” accessed July 17, 2018, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Regions_of_the_Philippines

24A local government unit (LGU) in the Philippines is divided into 3 levels: provinces1 and independent cities39; component cities40 and municipalities7; and, barangays10, according to Wikipedia page “Local government in the Philippines”.41

25“Camiguin,” accessed January 29, 2019, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Camiguin

26The Ivatans are a Filipino ethnolinguistic group predominant in the islands of Batanes6 of the Philippines, known for their stone houses of coral and limestone, designed to protect against the hostile climate in Batanes. Their origins remain untraced among scholars, but they are known to be an Austronesian group, i.e., a group of various peoples in Southeast Asia, Oceania and east Africa that speak Austronesian languages. The information was obtained from the Wikipedia page “Ivatan people”.42

27“Batanes,” accessed January 29, 2019, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Batanes

28 “Municipalities of the Philippines,” accessed January 29, 2019, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Municipalities_of_the_Philippines

29“Vitex parviflora,” accessed March 8, 2019, https://en.wikivoyage.org/wiki/Vitex_parviflora

30https://www.biology-online.org/dictionary/Balete

 31“Barangay,” accessed January 29, 2019,  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Barangay

32A marine protected area (MPA) is a protected area of estuaries, lakes, oceans or seas where a government has placed limits on human activity.43 The government restricts human activity for a conservation purpose, typically to protect natural or cultural resources. It can be a wildlife refuge to research facilities. It is protected by local, state, territorial, native, regional, national, or international authorities and differs substantially among and between nations, due to limitations on development, fishing practices, fishing seasons and catch limits, moorings and bans on removing disrupting marine life.44

 33“Marine reserve,” accessed March 2, 2019, https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marine_reserve

34https://www.nationalgeographic.org/encyclopedia/marine-reserve/

35A city is the local government unit24 in the Philippines headed by a mayor elected by popular vote. A vice mayor serves as the presiding officer of the Sangguniang Panlungsod (city council), which acts as the city’s legislative body. The information was obtained from Wikipedia page “Cities of the Philippines.”45

36“Dumaguete,” accessed January 29, 2019,  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dumaguete

37“Ocean Fast Ferries,” accessed January 29, 2019,  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ocean_Fast-Ferries

38“Boracay,” accessed January 29, 2019,  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boracay

39An independent city is a type of city35 in the Philippines which is administratively and legally not subject to a province1 so it does not share its tax revenues with any province. The national government and its agencies serve such a city through sub-offices of the region3 it belongs to. It is subdivided into 2: highly urbanized city46 or independent component city47. The information was obtained from Wikipedia page “Cities of the Philippines”45

40A component city is a type of city35 in the Philippines which does not meet the requirements of a highly urbanized city46. It is under the jurisdiction of a province1. If such a city is located along the boundaries of 2 or more provinces, it shall be considered part of the province of which it used to be a municipality7. The information was obtained from Wikipedia page “Cities of the Philippines”45

41“Local government in the Philippines,” accessed July 17, 2018, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Local_government_in_the_Philippines

42“Ivatan people,” accessed January 29, 2019, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ivatan_people

43https://www.nationalgeographic.org/encyclopedia/marine-reserve/

44“Marine protected area,” accessed March 2, 2019, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marine_protected_area

45“Cities of the Philippines,” accessed January 29, 2019, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cities_of_the_Philippines

46A highly urbanized city (HUC) is a type of city35 in the Philippines with a minimum population of 200,000 as certified by the Philippine Statistics Authority (PSA), and with the latest annual income of at least 50 million pesos, according to Wikipedia page “Cities of the Philippines”.45 There are currently 33 such cities in the Philippines (see link – Foreign Seniors Ask: HOW MANY CITIES ARE THERE IN THE PHILIPPINES?).

47An independent component city (ICC) is a type of city35 in the Philippines which is autonomous from the province1 in which it is geographically located and has a charter that explicitly prohibits its residents to vote for provincial officials (unless allowed to do so). It does not meet the requirements of a highly urbanized city46. There are 5 such cities in the country: Cotabato, Dagupan, Naga, Ormoc, and Santiago. The information was obtained from Wikipedia page “Cities of the Philippines”45

TAKE A TARZAN-LIKE DIVE AT CAMBUGAHAY FALLS, SIQUIJOR!

Cambugahay Falls is a famous tourist destination in the island province1 of Siquijor2, in the Central Visayas3 Region (Region VII)4 of the Philippines. It is a three-tiered waterfall that flows naturally into a lake. Said lake, I was told, apparently has healing powers.

This is the fifth stop (out of six) of our one-day Siquijor Coastal Tour. At the port of Siquijor2, we rented an air-conditioned van owned by Yane’s Adventures Van Services5. We had a very friendly, cheerful and accommodating driver, Jimmy Bueno.

And now, for my experience in this destination:

Cambugahay Falls can be accessed from the Siquijor Circumferential Road, in the town of Lazi6. It would be best to visit this place during weekdays and to go early to avoid the large number of people.

The parking area is on the opposite side of the street. The parking fee is PHP30 per vehicle.

Just cross the street from the parking area and you cannot miss the sign announcing Cambugahay Falls.

1-entrance-okEntrance, Cambugahay Falls – I hope the local tourism officials can improve its appearance and the local police can monitor groups to prevent the vandalism of signages

And guess what? There is no entrance fee to use this facility! You will then be offered the services of a guide or lifeguard, and it is up to you how much to give him as service fee. We opted to have one guide since we had a 7-year-old child with us. If you and your companions can swim, then you may not need avail of this service.

Thereafter, simply go down around 140 cemented steps made with large smooth stones. The downward trek is approximately 10 minutes, depending, dearest Senior Citizens, on the pacing of your steps. Be careful when you go down since there are no handrails. Hold on to a younger companion while going down the steps, just to be sure, dearest Seniors!2-stepsI strongly recommend that handrails be installed along the steps so that children, elders, and other persons who have difficulty going up and down these uneven steps can safely do so.

Your brief journey downwards will be rewarded by a captivating view of the third (bottom) level of the waterfalls, the biggest and deepest of all three levels.3-view-3rd levelThe third tier of Cambugahay Falls, with three diving spots (left of picture, middle with green slope, and right, with man seated)

These three swinging areas offer different heights to fall from, and you start to wonder, after seeing so many tourists doing a Tarzan-like jump, if you could also be brave enough to do so. If I were younger, I guess I would have jumped too!

This is where you will be amazed with the daring jumps of local and foreign tourists swinging from a long rope in three different parts of the falls.

6-cross bamboo-okYou just need to cross this narrow wooden bridgelike structure over the shallow, flowing water to get to the area where you can stay and later, decide to swim, Tarzan-dive, and/or proceed to the two other levels of this falls.

Then, live your best life at Cambugahay Falls, swing, swing some more, let go, and prepare for your splash! 

 

Most tourists just stay on this level of the falls. Some younger tourists repeatedly do the jump challenge, using different techniques of jumping. Some simply swim and enjoy the cool water.5-swim-ok

So, adventurous, younger, and more fit Seniors, why not take the Tarzan-Swing-Dive Challenge? My two younger male companions took the challenge, used different styles of jumps from the rope to the water, and made wonderful splashes on the cool, refreshing waters. I was told that if you pay PHP20, you can have unlimited jumps. Should you prefer not to jump, then, enjoy the view, swim, breathe in the fresh air, and take lots of pictures, just like what I did!7-3rd level

Of course, your best option, dearest Seniors, is to swim and enjoy the bluish, and oh so cool, spring water. For non-swimmers, you can rent a life vest for PHP50. We rented a life vest for the 7-year-old, and for the hesitant non-swimmer in our group. Bottomline: do not miss the chance to try the refreshing water.8-rental-life-vest-ok

There are makeshift bamboo tables, free of charge, where you can leave your belongings while you swim. It would be best to designate someone from your group to watch over your things.

9A-wooden tables-pls crop-okNotice the bamboo tablelike structures to the right of the life vest rental where people are seated? Those are the makeshift tables I mentioned which you could use to place your things while you swim or Tarzan-dive. Remember to place sunblock 30 minutes before sun exposure.

I noticed that there are no food stalls but saw a group of tourists being served food and drinks, delivered to their bamboo table. So, inquire about such services, if needed. However, I suggest you just bring your own snacks, since you will probably stay here for only 1-2 hours anyway, and then to find a decent restaurant in between stops.

Seniors, if you feel energetic and adventurous, why not proceed to the two higher tiers? These levels are more serene because fewer tourists go there. You can also swim in these two levels and I was told that the water is shallower in these two basins. It just so happened that I was not feeling well that day so I did not venture to see these two higher levels. If you did during your Siquijor tour, please tell me about it, ok?

There is no washroom, restroom, nor changing room in this place so some of us changed quickly behind a large bath towel (held by companions), while some opted to just exit the area without changing.

We only stayed here for about an hour, since it was also starting to get crowded and we had to proceed to our last, and final, destination – a beach called Salagdoong Beach7 – where we intended, anyway, to swim again.

A word of caution, dearest Seniors: leaving Cambugahay Falls entails that you climb all the way up to the entrance, about 10-15 minutes, on the same steps you used going down to the falls. Remember, there are no handrails, so pace yourself, or better still, hold on to a younger person. Take your time; you just swam for an hour so just rest after several steps. Accidents occur when you are in a hurry. Just tell you younger companions to be a bit patient and I am sure they will wait for you at the top.

We paid for our Siquijor Coastal Tour and all comments are based on my personal experience in this province1.

You can read a related post about my Siquijor tour – SERENE AND SPONTANEOUS SALAGDOONG BEACH, SIQUIJORGET BEWITCHED AT HAPITANAN, SIQUIJORNow You Know – SIQUIJOR: ITS LEGEND, HISTORY, TRADITIONS, AND BELIEFS and ENCHANTING 400-YEAR-OLD BALETE TREE AND FISH SPA, SIQUIJOR

Did you find this post informative? I would like to hear from you regarding your visit to captivating Cambugahay Falls. Did you take the Tarzan-Swing-Dive Challenge? Simply scroll and click “Leave a comment”. Do share this post with your Facebook friends, follow me by clicking on the bottom right corner of your device, and do not forget to like this post. Thank you.

– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –

The following terms are defined for interested readers, especially non-Filipinos, those with “Senior-Moments”, and those too busy or lazy to Google such terms:

1A province is the primary administrative and political division in the Philippines. It is the second-level administrative sub-division of a region8. There are 81 provinces (called “lalawigan”) in the Philippines. Each province is governed by an elected legislature called the Sangguniang Panlalawigan and by an elected governor. In the Philippines, a province is divided into cities9 and municipalities10 (or towns), which in turn, are divided into barangays11, formerly called barrios. The information was obtained from Wikipedia page “Provinces of the Philippines.”12 See a related post: Foreign Seniors Ask: WHAT ARE PROVINCES IN THE PHILIPPINES?

2Siquijor is an island province1 of the Philippines located in the Central Visayas3 Region (Region VII)4. Its capital is the municipality10 which is also called Siquijor. This coralline island is predominantly hilly, and in many places the hills reach the sea, producing steep cliffs. Geographically, Cebu is to the north, Negros to the west, Bohol to the northeast, and to the south, across the Bohol Sea, is Mindanao. It has a long-time reputation as a place of magic, sorcery, and mystical traditions. It is also well known for its festivals that focus on healing rituals. The information was obtained from the Wikipedia page “Siquijor”.13

3Visayas is one of the 3 major geographical divisions of the Philippines. It covers 3 administrative regions: Central Visayas4, Eastern Visayas and Western Visayas. It consists of 6 major islands (Bohol, Cebu, Leyte, Negros, Panay and Samar), mostly surrounded by the Visayan Sea, and is composed of 16 provinces1, according to Wikipedia page “Visayas”.14 Visayas is located at the middle part of the country; the 2 other geographical divisions of the Philippines are Luzon (in the northern part) and Mindanao (in the southern part).

4Central Visayas (Region VII) of the Philippines is a Philippine region8 located in the island group of Visayas3, with Cebu City as its regional center. It has 7 local government units15 (LGUs): Bohol, Cebu, Cebu City, Lapu-Lapu, Mandaue, Negros Oriental, and Siquijor2. The information was obtained from Wikipedia page “Regions of the Philippines.”16

5Yane’s Adventures Van Services information – Address: Pangi, Siquijor, Siquijor; Contact numbers: 09052133123, 09069732330 and 09183124461, look for Jade Jumawan Pestillos, and request for our very accommodating and cheerful driver, Jimmy Bueno.

6Lazi, formerly called Tigbawan, is a coastal municipality10 in the island province1 of Siquijor2, with 18 barangays11. It is located in the southeastern side of the island, between the towns of San Juan in the west and Maria from the east. It is known for its Roman Catholic church called San Isidro Labrador Parish Church (a National Historical Landmark17, a National Cultural Treasure18, and included in the tentative list for UNESCO World Heritage Sites19 under the Baroque20 Churches of the Philippines-Extension), the Convent in front of it (one of the largest convents built during the Spanish colonial era21), the 400-year-old enchanting balete tree with fish spa, and Cambugahay Falls (see above). The information was obtained from the Wikipedia page “Lazi, Siquijor”22 and “Siquijor”13. Visit this site for more information: http://www.phtourguide.com/municipality-of-lazi-in-siquijor/

7Salagdoong Beach is a popular tourist destination in the town of Maria, on the southeastern side of the island province1 of Siquijor2, in the Central Visayas3 Region (Region VII)4 of the Philippines. This beach is known for swimming and cliff diving. It has crystal clear waters and white sand shores.

8A region is the first-order administrative division in the Philippines. There are 17 regions in the Philippines, based on geographical, cultural and ethnological characteristics. It is further subdivided into provinces1, composed of cities9 and municipalities10 (or towns), which in turn, are divided into barangays11. The regions were initially identified in 1972, through Presidential Decree No. 1 of President Ferdinand Marcos. Since then, other regions have been created and some provinces have been “transferred” to another region. The information was obtained from Wikipedia page “Regions of the Philippines.”16   See a related post: Foreign Seniors Ask: WHAT ARE THE REGIONS OF THE PHILIPPINES?

9A city is the local government unit15 in the Philippines headed by a mayor elected by popular vote. A vice-mayor serves as the presiding officer of the city’s legislative body – the Sangguniang Panlungsod (city council). The information was obtained from Wikipedia page “Cities of the Philippines.”23 See a related post: Foreign Seniors Ask: HOW MANY CITIES ARE THERE IN THE PHILIPPINES?

10A municipality is a small, single urban administrative division, or local government unit (LGU)15, in the Philippines which has corporate status and powers of self-government or jurisdiction as granted by law. It is a unit under a province1, subdivided into barangays11, and is called town, or bayan. In the Philippines, a municipality is headed by a mayor, a vice-mayor and members of the Sangguniang Bayan (legislative branch). It can enact local policies and laws, enforce them, and govern its jurisdictions. It can enter into contracts and other transactions through its elected and appointed officials, and can tax as well. It enforces all local and national laws. The information was obtained from Wikipedia page “Municipalities of the Philippines.”24

11A barangay in the Philippines is the smallest administrative division in the Philippines, headed by a barangay captain, aided by a Sangguniang Barangay (Barangay Council). It is the native Filipino term for a district or village. It was formerly called a barrio. In a metropolitan area, a barangay is an inner city neighborhood, a suburb, or a suburban neighborhood. The word barangay originated from the term “balangay”, a kind of boat used by a group of Austronesian people who migrated to the Philippines. A number of barangays grouped together is called a district. The information was obtained from Wikipedia page “Barangay.”25

12“Provinces of the Philippines,” accessed July 17, 2018,  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Provinces_of_the_Philippines

13“Siquijor,” accessed March 8, 2019,https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Siquijor

14“Visayas,” accessed January 29, 2019, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Visayas

15A local government unit (LGU) in the Philippines is divided into 3 levels: provinces1 and independent cities26; component cities27 and municipalities10; and, barangays11, according to Wikipedia page “Local government in the Philippines”.28

16“Regions of the Philippines,” accessed January 29, 2019,  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Regions_of_the_Philippines

17A National Historical Landmark of the Philippines is a place or an object that is associated with an event, achievement, characteristics or modification that presents a turning point or stage in history. The information was obtained from the Wikipedia page “Category: National Historical Landmarks of the Philippines”.29

18A National Cultural Treasure (NCT) of the Philippines is a tangible (movable and immovable) or intangible heritage property declared by the National Commission for Culture and Arts30 and other cultural agencies such as the National Museum of the Philippines31, National Library of the Philippines32, and National Archives of the Philippines33. Such declarations are authorized under the National Cultural Heritage Act of 200934 and recognized within the Cultural Properties of the Philippines35 by the Philippine government. The title of NCT is the highest designation given to a “unique cultural property found locally, possessing outstanding historical, cultural, artistic and/or scientific value which is highly significant and important to the country and nation”.36 The information was obtained from the Wikipedia page “National Cultural Treasure”.37

19A UNESCO World Heritage Site (WHS) is a unique landmark, or geographically and historically identifiable place, which is selected by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) as having cultural, historical, scientific, physical or other form of significance, and is legally protected by international treaties. Sites are demarcated by UNESCO as protected zones. The list is maintained by the International World Heritage Program administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 state parties which are elected by the General Assembly. Under certain conditions, listed sites can obtain funds from the World Heritage Fund. The information was obtained from the Wikipedia page “World Heritage Site”.38

20Baroque architecture began in Rome, Italy, in the late 16th century, which conveys grandeur and drama, most often used in palaces and churches. It includes curving forms, oval shapes, and a combination of concave and convex forms that make walls seem to undulate, or appear wavy, with a strong sense of motion. It groups things together like columns and decorative flourishes on building surfaces. Architectural elements are repeated across a surface. It uses distortion to make figures elongated, broken, or manipulated in some manner to make them stand out. Buildings have columns, sometimes topped with capitals and large volutes, scroll, or spiral forms. Sculptural wall elements will often project from the surface which is full of forms to increase the interplay of light and shadow across them. Inside, Baroque structures will often have ceilings painted in bright colors, made to fool one’s eye into believing one is looking at the sky. Buildings also have very rich surface treatments, including interiors with stucco39, various colored marbles, and gold gilt or thin sheets of gold applied to surfaces. Most Baroque churches have vaulted ceilings, supported by a series of interconnected arches.40

21The Spanish colonial era was the historical part of the Philippines from 1521, when European explorer Ferdinand Magellan arrived in the country, and ended in 1898, with the outbreak of the Philippine Revolution41. The information was obtained from the Wikipedia page “History of the Philippines from 1521 to 1898”.42

22“Lazi, Siquijor,” accessed March 8, 2019,https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lazi,_Siquijor

23“Cities of the Philippines,” accessed January 29, 2019,  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cities_of_the_Philippines

24“Municipalities of the Philippines,” accessed January 29, 2019,  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Municipalities_of_the_Philippines

25“Barangay,” accessed January 29, 2019, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Barangay

26An independent city is a type of city9 in the Philippines which is administratively and legally not subject to a provinceso it does not share its tax revenues with any province. The national government and its agencies serve such a city through sub-offices of the region8 it belongs to. It is subdivided into 2: highly urbanized city43 or independent component city44. The information was obtained from Wikipedia page “Cities of the Philippines”23

27A component city is a type of city9 in the Philippines which does not meet the requirements of a highly urbanized city43. It is under the jurisdiction of a province1. If such a city is located along the boundaries of 2 or more provinces, it shall be considered part of the province of which it used to be a municipality10. The information was obtained from Wikipedia page “Cities of the Philippines”23

28“Local government in the Philippines,” accessed January 29, 2019, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Local_government_in_the_Philippines

29“Category: National Historical Landmarks of the Philippines,” accessed October 16, 2018, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Category:_National_Historical_Landmarks_of_the_Philippines

30The National Commission for Culture and Arts is the official government agency for culture in the Philippines, formed in 1987, with headquarters in General Luna Street, Intramuros, Manila. It is the overall policy making body, coordinating, and grants-giving agency for the preservation, development and promotion of Philippine arts and culture. Its parent department is the Office of the President of the Philippines and its sub-agencies are the: National Archives of the Philippines33, National Historical Commission of the Philippines45, National Library of the Philippines32, National Museum of the Philippines31, Commission on the Filipino Language, and the Cultural Center of the Philippines. The information was obtained from the Wikipedia page “National Commission for Culture and Arts”.46 Visit its website: www.ncca.gov.ph

31The National Museum of the Philippines is a government institution in the Philippines which serves as the educational, scientific and cultural institution in preserving the various permanent national collections featuring the ethnographic, anthropological, archaeological and visual artistry of the Philippines. It was formed on October 29, 1901, with headquarters in Padre Burgos Avenue, in Rizal Park, Ermita, Manila. Since 1998, it has been the regulatory and enforcement agency of the national government in restoring and safeguarding important cultural properties, sites and reservations throughout the Philippines. It is under the Department of Education and the National Commission for Culture and Arts30. The information was obtained from the Wikipedia page “National Museum of the Philippines”.47 Visit its website: www.nationalmuseum.gov.ph

32The National Library of the Philippines is the official national library of the Philippines, with over 1.6 million pieces in its collections. It is notably called the home of the original copies of the defining works of Jose Rizal (Noli Me Tangere, El Filibusterismo and Mi Ultimo Adios). It was established in 1901 and located in Rizal Park, at T. M. Kalaw Avenue, Ermita, Manila. The information was obtained from the Wikipedia page “National Library of the Philippines”.48 Visit its website: www.web.nlp.gov.ph

33The National Archives of the Philippines is an agency of the Philippines which is mandated to collect, store, preserve and make available, archival records of the government and other primary sources pertaining to the history and development of the country, as a result of the passage of Republic Act 9470 on May 21, 2007. It is the primary records management agency, tasked to formulate and implement the records schedule and vital records protection programs for the government. Its headquarters is in the National Library of the Philippines, in Rizal Park, at T. M. Kalaw Avenue, Ermita, Manila. The information was obtained from the Wikipedia page “National Archives of the Philippines”.49 Visit its website: www.nationalarchives.gov.ph

34The National Cultural Heritage Act is a law of the Republic of the Philippines which created the Philippine Registry of Cultural Property and took other steps to preserve historic buildings that are over 50 years old, signed into law on March 25, 2009, according to the Wikipedia page “National Cultural Heritage Act”.50

35The Cultural Properties of the Philippines refers to the cultural properties listed by the National Commission for Culture and Arts30, National Historical Commission of the Philippines45, and the National Museum of the Philippines31 through the Philippine Registry of Cultural Property (PRECUP), the official cultural property list of the country. The information was obtained from Wikipedia page “Cultural properties of the Philippines”.51

 36www.primer.com.ph

37“National Cultural Treasure,” accessed October 16, 2018, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/National_Cultural_Treasure

38“World Heritage Site,” accessed October 16, 2018, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World_Heritage_Site

39Stucco refers to the cement-based and fine plaster used for coating wall surfaces or molding into architectural decorations. It hardens into a highly durable material that requires little maintenance and can be used to obtain different textures and finishes.52

40https://study.com/academy/lesson/italian-baroque-architecture-characteristics-examples.html

41The Philippine Revolution is the revolution that started on August 23, 1896, when the Spaniards discovered the Katipunan53, and ended on August 13, 1898. The Filipinos were victorious and this resulted in the expulsion of the Spanish colonial government, as well as: the signing of the Pact of Biak-na-Bato54 in 1897; the resumption of hostilities during the Spanish-American War55 in 1898; the establishment of the First Philippine Republic56; and, the outbreak of the Philippine-American War57 in 1899. The information was obtained from the Wikipedia page “Philippine Revolution”.58

42“History of the Philippines from 1521 to 1898,” accessed October 16, 2018, https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_the_Philippines

43A highly urbanized city (HUC) is a type of city9 in the Philippines with a minimum population of 200,000 as certified by the Philippine Statistics Authority (PSA), and with the latest annual income of at least 50 million pesos, according to Wikipedia page “Cities of the Philippines”.23 There are currently 33 such cities in the Philippines (see link – I will place a link here).

44An independent component city (ICC) is a type of city9 in the Philippines which is autonomous from the province1 in which it is geographically located and has a charter that explicitly prohibits its residents to vote for provincial officials (unless allowed to do so). It does not meet the requirements of a highly urbanized city43. There are 5 such cities in the country: Cotabato, Dagupan, Naga, Ormoc, and Santiago. The information was obtained from Wikipedia page “Cities of the Philippines”23

45The National Historical Commission of the Philippines (NHCP) is a government agency of the Philippines which promotes Philippine history and cultural heritage through research, dissemination, conservation, sites management, and heraldry works, thereby inculcating awareness and appreciation of the noble deeds and ideals of our heroes and other illustrious Filipinos, instilling pride in the Filipino people, and rekindling the Filipino spirit through the lessons of history. The information was obtained from the Wikipedia page “National Historical Commission of the Philippines”.59

46 “National Commission for Culture and Arts,” accessed October 16, 2018,https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/National_Commission_for_Culture_and_Arts

47“National Museum of the Philippines,” accessed October 16, 2018, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/National_Museum_of_the_Philippines

48“National Library of the Philippines,” accessed October 16, 2018, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/National_Library_of_the_Philippines

49“National Archives of the Philippines,” accessed October 16, 2018,https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/National_Archives_of_the_Philippines

50“National Cultural Heritage Act,” accessed October 16, 2018, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/National_Cultural_Heritage_Act

51“Cultural properties of the Philippines,” accessed October 16, 2018,https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cultural_properties_of_the_Philippines

52https://www.thebalancesmb.com/choose-right-stucco-mix-844655

53The Katipunan was the Philippine revolutionary secret society founded by anti-Spanish Filipinos in Manila in 1892 which aimed to gain independence from Spain through a revolution, according to the Wikipedia page “Katipunan”.60

54Pact of Biak-na-Bato was a truce between Spanish colonial Governor-General Fernando Primo de Rivera and the revolutionary leader Emilio Aguinaldo to end the Philippine Revolution34, signed on December 14, 1897, in the house of Pablo Tecson (a Philippine revolutionary captain who served as Brigadier General under General Gregorio del Pilar) in San Miguel, Bulacan. Aguinaldo and his fellow revolutionaries were given amnesty and monetary indemnity by the Spanish government, in return for which the revolutionary government would go on exile in Hong Kong. The information was obtained from Wikipedia page “Pact of Biak-na-Bato”.61

55The Spanish-American War was fought between Spain and the United States in 1898. Hostilities began in the aftermath of the internal explosion of USS Maine in Havana Harbor, in Cuba, leading to US intervention in the Cuban War of Independence. The Americans won and it resulted in the Treaty of Paris62, signed on December 10, 1898. Said treaty came into effect on April 11, 1899, when the documents of ratification were exchanged, with Spain relinquishing all claims of sovereignty over and title to Cuba, and ceded Puerto Rico, Guam and the Philippines to the US. The cession of the Philippines involved a compensation of $20 million from the US to Spain. The information was obtained from Wikipedia pages “Spanish-American War”63 and “Treaty of Paris of 1898”64.

56The First Philippine Republic, or the Malolos Republic, was a nascent revolutionary government in the Philippines, established after the Philippine Revolution41 against the Spanish Empire (1896-1897) and the Spanish-American War55, and was the first constitutional republic in Asia, with a comprehensive constitution duly approved by a partially elected congress. It was formally established with the proclamation of the Malolos Constitution on January 21, 1899, in Malolos, Bulacan, and endured until the capture of President Emilio Aguinaldo by the American forces on March 23, 1901, in Palanan, Isabela. The information was obtained from Wikipedia page “First Philippine Republic”.65

57The Philippine-American War, the Philippine War, the Philippine Insurrection, or the Tagalog Insurgency, was an armed conflict between the First Philippine Republic56 and the USA that lasted from February 4, 1899 to July 2, 1902. The conflict arose when the former objected to the terms of the Treaty of Paris62, under which the US took possession of the Philippines from Spain, ending the short Spanish-American War55. The information was obtained from Wikipedia page “Philippine-American War”.66

58“Philippine Revolution,” accessed October 16, 2018, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Philippine_Revolution

59“National Historical Commission of the Philippines,” accessed October 16, 2018, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/National_Historical_Commission_of_the_Philippines

60“Katipunan,” accessed October 16, 2018,https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Katipunan

61“Pact of Biak-na-Bato,” accessed October 16, 2018, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pact_of_Biak-na-Bato

62The Treaty of Paris was an agreement, signed on December 10, 1898, that involved Spain relinquishing nearly all the remaining Spanish Empire, especially Cuba, and ceding Guam, Puerto Rico, and the Philippines to the US, thus ending the Spanish-American War55. It came into effect on April 11, 1899, when the documents of ratification were exchanged. The cessation of the Philippines involved a payment of US$20 million from the US to Spain. The information was obtained from the Wikipedia page “Treaty of Paris (1898)”.64

63“Spanish-American War,” accessed November 2, 2018, https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spanish_American_War

64“Treaty of Paris,” accessed November 2, 2018, https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Treaty_of_Paris.

65“First Philippine Republic,” accessed October 16, 2018, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/First_Philippine_Republic

66“Philippine-Amercian War,” accessed November 2, 2018, https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Philippine-American_War