NIAGARA FALLS, THE CANADIAN SIDE: AN AWESOME SIGHT TO BEHOLD

Niagara Falls is the collective name given to a group of three spectacular waterfalls at the southern end of Niagara Forge, between the Canadian province of Ontario and the US state of New York. It is located on the Niagara River which drains Lake Erie into Lake Ontario.1

Niagara Falls - labelled-1I was able to visit the Canadian side on July 2019, and it is indeed an awesome beauty of nature.

The largest of the three waterfalls is Horseshoe Falls, or Canadian Falls. It is the most powerful waterfall in North America, as measured by flow rate, and drops an average of 57 meters (188 feet) into the Lower Niagara River. It straddles the international border between Canada and the USA.

The smaller American Falls and Bridal Veil Falls lie entirely within the USA. Bridal Falls are separated from Horseshoe Falls by Goat Island, and from the American Falls by Luna Island.

For interesting trivia about Niagara Falls, visit a related post: NOW YOU KNOW: NIAGARA FALLS

By the way, it does not cost anything to see Niagara Falls. It is open 24 hours, seven days a week, year round. However, park attractions are seasonal and have their own schedules. For more information, visit www.niagarafallsstatepark.com.

Niagara Falls is located in a public place and you can take all the pictures and videos you want along the pedestrian walkway at the brink of the falls. However, if you so desire, you can enjoy any of the following with the corresponding fees:

1. Clifton Hill parking lot – If you want to enjoy the different attractions of Clifton Hill before or after visiting the falls, then why not park here? The area can accommodate 700 vehicles, with two entrances and three exits, as well as easy access to Clifton Hill (see a related post), Niagara Falls, and Hornblower Cruise (for your cruise along the falls, Canadian side). Parking fee is about CAD10 (about PHP390).

2. Hornblower Niagara Cruises– Are you game enough to ride a state-of-the-art 700-passenger catamaran or a 150-passenger jet-boat available for private functions called the Hornblower Guardian? Either vessel will take you as close as possible to the three falls.

All boarding is located at the Hornblower Lower Landing in the Great Gorge and entrance is at 5920 River Road (Niagara Parkway).

Hornblower Niagara Cruises is located on the Niagara Parkway, at the north end of Queen Victoria Park, close to the Rainbow Bridge and Oakes Garden Theatre, at the foot of the Clifton Hill tourist area.

Visit www.niagaraparks.com for more details, prices, packages, and discounts. To give you an idea about prices, adults (13+) with funicular – CAD28.95 (PHP1,135), children (5-12 years old) – CAD18.95 (PHP743), and 4-years old and under are free.

3. Journey Behind the Falls –  Why not go under the Horseshoe Falls to feel its thunderous vibrations and to experience what it feels to be behind the falls? You only need to descend 125 feet and explore 130-year-old tunnels through the bedrock.

The observation deck at the foot of this 13-storey-tall wonder will leave you breathless (and a bit wet too). But what the heck! Viewing portals were cut straight through the rock for your once-in-a-lifetime view of one-fifth of the world’s fresh water, crashing down in front of you!

An added treat from June 28 till September 1, 2019 is the night experience of the Journey Behind the Falls, with all the lights and fireworks. You can also have exclusive after-hours access at the base of the Horseshoe Falls and be fascinated by its illumination and fireworks!

4. Helicopter ride – A family vacation in Niagara Falls Canada would be so memorable if you take the  grand helicopter tour, costing a little more than CAD$100 (PHP3,920) each for a maximum of 7 passengers per 12-minute trip. Ask for family and group rates. The ride offers a taped commentary available in 12 languages. Helicopters have large panoramic-view windows, ideal for unlimited and spectacular photos and videos. Flights depart daily from 9am till sunset, weather permitting. I visited https://www.niagarahelicopters.com/our-classic-tour

5. Aside from taking the expensive helicopter tour, there are two tall structures you can also visit to appreciate the grandeur of the Falls, Canada side:

a. The observation deck of Skylon Tower in Niagara Falls, Ontario – This offers the highest view of the Horseshoe Falls (Ontario) and American Falls (New York), as well as the Toronto Tower in the opposite direction, from the Canadian side of the Niagara River, a 360-degree view.Skylon Tower-Ilievaart-wikiSkylon Tower at night, Niagara Falls, Ontario, own work of Ingelbert Lievaart II, 30 August 2005. See:  https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Ilievaart-falls0805_7584smaller.jpg

The Skylon Tower was constructed by Pigott Construction of Hamilton, Ontario, on May 1964 at a cost of US$7 million, and opened on October 6, 1965. It stands at 160 meters (520 feet) from street level and 236 meters (775 feet) from the bottom of the falls.

Skylon Tower-collage                                          The Skylon Tower, different perspectives

It has 3 outside mounted “Yellow Bug” elevators which can carry passengers to the top of the tower in 52 seconds. An observation deck sits at the tower’s summit. Its colorful lights at night in recent years is also a sight to behold!

If you just want to go up the top and visit the observation deck, you will pay CAD16.24 (PHP637) for adults (13+) and CAD10.44 (PHP410) for children (4-12 years old); kids under 4 years of age are free. Special discounts may be offered for online tickets like CAD14.50 (PHP569) for adults and CAD8.50 (PHP333) for children. Be updated, visit: https://store.skylon.com/

You can enjoy lunch or dinner in its two restaurants at the top, and you can then have complimentary entry to the tower and observation deck – the lower Revolving Dining Room that seats 276 people and revolves once every hour (so be sure to reserve a table window side), and the upper Summit Suite Buffet.  Or try the fast food restaurants at the base of the tower, and stroll through the large amusement arcade and gift shops.

Visit the revolving Dining Room’s website for its menu. Prices are subject to H.S.T.1, and a 3% Attractions and Promotions Fee. Gratuities are left to the discretion of guests. For a complimentary elevation, a main course must be purchased, and the minimum charge per guest is CAD43 (PHP1,686). Anyway, if you do not go for such food, the breathtaking view of the Falls and surrounding areas will be worth it! It is open for lunch (11:30am-3pm), early dinner (4:30-5pm), and dinner (5pm onwards); savor the sunset and the awesome 360-degree view! Watch out for seasonal price changes and special offers at https://www.skylon.com/skylon-tower-menu/dinner/

For the Summit Suite Buffet menu, visit https://www.skylon.com/niagara-falls-dining/summit-suite-buffet/, the cost is CAD44.95 (PHP1,762) for adults and CAD17.95 (PHP703) for children. There are the special pricing for early bird (5-5:30pm) with reservations – CAD39.95 (PHP1,566) for adults and CAD15.95 (PHP625) for children.

b. The 175-foot (53.3 meter) ferris wheel called Niagara SkyWheel, is located in the middle of Clifton Hill, Niagara Falls, and opened on June 17, 2006, at a cost of US$10 million.

Its 42 Swiss-manufactured, fully enclosed passenger cars can carry 9 people each, heated in the winter, and air-conditioned in the warmer months. It is open all year, from 9:00 am – 1:00 am, giving passengers wonderful views of the Niagara River and the Horseshoe Falls and American Falls.

SkyWheel-collage       SkyWheel, Cliftton Hill, Niagara Falls, Ontario – different perspectives, July 2019

Adults (12 years and above) need to pay CAD12.99 (PHP510) and kids 3-12 years old, CAD6.99 (PHP274). Savor every minute of the 12-15 minute long ride! Get updates from https://www.cliftonhill.com/tickets/individual-ticket-prices

 

 

 

The information was obtained from the following Wikipedia pages: Niagara Falls, Ontario2; Clifton Hill, Niagara Falls3; Skylon Tower4, as well as the websites – https://www.niagaraparks.com/visit-niagara-parks/plan-your-visit/niagara-falls-geology-facts-figures/, and www.cliftonhill.com

I purposely converted CAD to PHP for the benefit of my Filipino readers, at an exchange rate of 1:30.2, rounding off PHP figures.

Here are a few tips for tourists, especially seniors, who plan to visit Niagara Falls:

1. Be prepared to walk all day. It was good that at 63-years old, I walk 4-5 km almost daily with my husband. However, we still got so tired with all the walking from the parking lot, around and along Clifton Hill, all the way almost to the end of the pedestrian walkway along the Canadian side of the falls, then back to Clifton Hill and the parking lot!

img006

img008The map above was obtained from the brochure of CitySightseeing Niagara. Visit    www.citysightseeingniagara.com

You might ask, is Niagara Falls Canada accessible? Absolutely! You have the following options, on a first-come first-serve basis: (a) some Niagara Falls hotels have their own wheelchairs and scooters available for guests so better inquire at the time of your booking to ensure that one will be available for you upon arrival and for use for the Falls; (b) a few Niagara Parks Canada attractions and other establishments offer free wheelchair rentals like: Table Rock Welcome Centre which has 8 wheelchairs available for rent with a credit card imprint  or other form of acceptable identification, Marineland (in the Aquarium Dome building adjacent to the right of the admission area), Floral Showhouse, Butterfly Conservatory, RentMe Niagara Falls offers mobility equipment rentals (wheelchairs, power wheelchairs and walkers) with same day delivery, Motion Specialities (located in St. Catherines, about 20 minutes away from Niagara Falls, which offers accessibility rentals but please book in advance, for pickup or delivery for a fee), Pharmashield Dispensary and Queen Street Pharmacy (just book at least one week in advance; delivery is available), and eSkoot Niagara (which provides mobility scooter rentals, with delivery and pickup from your Niagara accommodation for a fee only from March 31-November 1, 2019).

If you visit during winter months, inquire if wheelchairs can be taken outside their building locations.

#ExploreNiagara! Visit this website for related information on accessibility: https://www.niagarafallstourism.com/plan/accessibility/

2. Bring water because you need to hydrate yourself. Besides, bottled water is expensive there. You can also bring snacks, if desired. But do try the surrounding dining outlets, stalls and bars with your companions.

3. Bring CAD cash and/or your credit card. Going to Niagara falls is free but of course, you need to eat somewhere, proceed to Clifton Hill (see a related post) or nearby attractions, or buy souvenir items.

4. Fully charge your cellphones, GoPro, and power banks to get all the photos and videos you want.

5. Travel light and bring only essential items for your walk.

6. I recommend that you spend at least an overnight stay in the Niagara Falls area to see more of the falls and enjoy other activities nearby like gaming, wine tasting, and shopping in outlets and souvenir shops.

7. It is fascinating that daylight goes on till around 9:00 pm during summer. Experience Niagara Falls at night, i.e.,10 pm onwards during summertime, and witness its nightly illuminations and fireworks!

8. Bring your whole family. There is something somewhere for every age. In fact, make this a memorable bonding time for the whole family!

9. Definitely, do not go on a weekend during summertime to avoid the influx of so many tourists!

Now for my short, but very memorable, visit to the Canadian side of Niagara Falls. We arrived before lunch, parked in the very spacious Clifton Hill parking lot.

We came from a long drive from Scarborough and shopped at nearby Niagara outlet shops, so we decided to dine at the Niagara Brewing Company for a quick bite and tasted their beer samplers. As expected, the place was full. We were ushered to a wooden table in the patio. We ordered Chicken Wings and Chicken Fingers; both were tasty and served at the right temperature. We enjoyed them with fries as well as samples of 8 brews. The rest rooms were clean and well supplied.

We then walked along the main road, going towards the falls. Not much to say since I did not enter any attraction, just took pictures of whatever we saw, due to the limited time we could stay. See a related post for my comments regarding Clifton Hill.

Our mistake, if you can call it, is that we visited the Niagara Falls area on a Sunday during summertime so the place was teeming with tourists. The elevated border of the pedestrian walkway, as well as the walkway itself, was crammed with tourists who seemed to stay so long and/or endlessly walk in various directions. More than once, I needed to ask for space to be able to take videos and photos.

The lines for the Voyage to the Falls (Hornblower Cruises on the Canadian side) and the Journey Behind the Falls (which takes about 45 minutes) were so long that my group opted to skip these adventures.

Hornblower-3Hornblower Voyage to the Falls dock and boat, July 2019

Hornblower-Horseshoe Falls-rainbowThe Hornblower nearing the Horseshoe Falls, July 2019

The helicopter tour was expensive. The seniors in the group were tired walking around so we also did not go to the Skylon Tower either. Surrounding restaurants were full and food/refreshment stalls also have long lines but we somehow found an ice cream stall.

We left around 9pm (but there was still daylight, can you believe that?) so we were not able to see Niagara by night, which we were told was a sight to see! Perhaps, this is one reason to return to this place and stay longer to visit the casinos and other surrounding attractions.

Now that I have seen the Canadian side of Niagara Falls, I am more keen on seeing it from the American side. Perhaps, someday soon. For those who have seen both sides, pray tell which is more beautiful and tell me why, will you?

We paid for our Niagara Falls visit and all comments are personal, based on my July 2019 experience.

Did you find this post informative? I would like to hear from you re your visit to Niagara Falls, not only during summertime but other seasons as well. Simply scroll and click “Leave a comment”. Do share this post with your Facebook friends, follow me by clicking on the bottom right corner of your device, and do not forget to like this post. Thank you.

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1The harmonized sales tax (HST) is a consumption tax in Canada. It is used in provinces where both the federal goods and services tax (GST) and the regional provincial sales tax (PST) have been combined into a single value added sales tax. This tax is in effect in five of the ten Canadian provincesNew BrunswickNewfoundland and LabradorNova ScotiaOntario and Prince Edward Island. The HST is 13% in Ontario.5 & 6

2“Niagara Falls, Ontario,” accessed August 6, 2019, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Naiagara_Falls,_Ontario

3“Clifton Hill, Niagara Falls,“ accessed August 6, 2019, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Clifton_Hill,)Niagara_Falls

4“Skylon Tower,“ accessed August 6, 2019, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Skylon_Tower

5https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Harmonized_sales_tax

6https://www.fin.gov.on.ca/en/tax/hst/

 

NOW YOU KNOW: NIAGARA FALLS

Niagara Falls is the collective name given to a group of three spectacular waterfalls at the southern end of Niagara Forge, between the Canadian province of Ontario and the US state of New York. It is located on the Niagara River which drains Lake Erie into Lake Ontario.1

Niagara Falls - labelled-1                         Niagara Falls, picture taken from the Canadian side

Niagara Falls is located in a public place and you can take all the pictures and videos you want along the pedestrian walkway at the brink of the falls. It is open 24 hours, seven days a week, year round. However, park attractions are seasonal and have their own schedules.

I was able to visit the Canadian side on July 2019, and it is indeed an awesome beauty of nature. See my personal experience in my post: NIAGARA FALLS, THE CANADIAN SIDE: AN AWESOME SIGHT TO BEHOLD.

For more information about the falls, visit www.niagarafallsstatepark.com.

Before you go to my personal visit to the falls, here are 18 interesting facts about Niagara Falls:

1. The largest of the three waterfalls is Horseshoe Falls, or Canadian Falls. It is the most powerful waterfall in North America, as measured by flow rate, and drops an average of 57 meters (188 feet) into the Lower Niagara River. It straddles the international border between Canada and the USA.67926969_347169562860893_1535789689829588992_n

The smaller American Falls and Bridal Veil Falls lie entirely within the USA. Bridal Falls are separated from Horseshoe Falls by Goat Island and from the American Falls by Luna Island.American Falls-Bridal Falls

The falls are 27 km (17 miles) north-northwest of Buffalo, New York, and 121 km (75 miles) south-southeast of Toronto, between the twin cities of Niagara Falls, Ontario, and Niagara Falls, New York.

The height of the American Falls ranges between 21-34 meters (70-110 feet), taken from the top of the falls to the top of the rock pile at the base, called the talus slope. The height of the falls from the top of the falls to the river is 57 meters (188 feet). Its crest line is approximately 260 meters (850 feet) wide.

The crest line of the Canadian Falls is approximately 670 meters (2,200 feet) wide. The plunge pool beneath the falls is 35 meters (100 feet) deep.

2. Now what is the thing called the Whirpool in Niagara Falls?

The huge volume of water rushing from the falls is crushed into the narrow Great Gorge, creating the Whirpool Rapids that stretch for 1.6 km (1 mile). The water surface here drops 15 meters (50 feet) and the rushing waters can reach speeds as high as 9 meters per second (30 feet per second)!

Whirlpool_aerial_view-Zwergelstern-wikiNiagara River: Whirlpool (aerial view). The outskirts of Niagara Falls and the Niagara Glen-View Park is in the lower left, and the Whirlpool Golf Course is in the upper right – own work, Zwergelstern – commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Niagara_Falls_Whirlpool_aerial_view.jpg

The Whirlpool is a basin 518 meters (1.700 feet) long by 365 meters (1,200 feet) wide, with depths up to 38 meters (125 feet). This is the elbow, where the river makes a sharp right-angled turn.

In the Whirlpool, you can see the “reversal phenomenon“. When the Niagara River is at full flow, the waters travel over the rapids and enter the pool, then travel counter-clockwise around the pool past the natural outlet. Pressure builds up when the water tries to cut across itself to reach the outlet, and this pressure forces the water under the incoming stream.

Whirlpool_Spanish_Aero_Car-CmgleeThe Niagara Whirlpool with an approaching Spanish Aero Car – own work, Cmglee – en.wikimedia.org/wiki/Niagara_Whirlpool#/media/File:Niagara_Whirlpool_Spanish_Aero_Car.jpg

The swirling waters create a vortex, or whirpool. The,n the waters continue their journey to Lake Ontario. If the water flow is low (water is diverted for hydroelectric purposes after 10pm every night), the reversal does not take place; the water merely moves clockwise through the pool and passes to the outlet.

3. Can you believe that Niagara Falls is not the tallest waterfall in the world, although it looks so huge? Nonetheless, what is so impressive and breathtaking is the combination of height and the volume of flowing water.

Just imagine that the combined falls have the highest flow rate of any waterfall in North America that has a vertical drop of more than 50 meters (160 feet).

Horseshoe Falls-1

More than 168,000 cubic meters (6 million cubic feet) of water go over the crestine of the falls every minute during peak daytime tourist hours!

The rapids above the falls reach a maximum speed of 40 km/hr or 25 mph, with the fastest speeds which occur at the falls themselves reaching 68 mph.

The water through the Whirlpool Rapids below the falls reaches 48 km/hr or 30 mph, and at Devil’s Hole Rapids 36 km/hr.

The International Boundary Waters Treaty stipulates the minimum amount of flow over the falls during daytime, nighttime, and the tourist season.

4. Now, where do you think all the water comes from? Let Tita S tell you. The Great Lakes is the world’s largest surface freshwater system, containing about 18% of the world’s supply. If spread out, the volume of water in the Great Lakes would cover North America in  about 1 meter (3.5 feet) of water,

The water flows from streams and rivers that empty into the Great Lakes, from Lake Superior, down through Niagara to Lake Ontario, then into the St. Lawrence River to the Atlantic Ocean. Water always flows down to the sea, and the land slopes downward through the Great Lakes Basin, from west to east, but the Niagara River actually flows north!

Today, less than 1% of the water of the Great Lakes is renewable on an annual basis (precipitation and groundwater). The rest is a legacy from the last ice age, or “fossil“ water. There is still water in the Great Lakes because they rely heavily on replenishment or renewal from precipitation (rain, sheet, snow and hail) and groundwater.

5. Did you know that there is a brown foam below Niagara Falls? What causes it?

The brown foam below Niagara Falls is a natural result of tons of water plummeting into the depths below but it is not dangerous! The brown color is clay, which contains suspended particles of decayed vegetative matter, mostly from the shallow eastern basin of Lake Erie.

6. With such a large amount of flowing water, one cannot help but ask how the water is used.

The waters of the Niagara Rover are used by a combined Canada-USA population of more than a million people, for a wide range of purposes, such as drinking water, recreation (boating, swimming, bird-watching), fishing, industrial cooling water supply, receiver of municipal and industrial effluents, and hydro-power generation (Sir Adam Beck Station in Ontario and New York State Power Authority).

7. So, how much water from the Falls is diverted?

The level of water flow from Lake Erie into the Niagara River has been regulated by the International Joint Commission (USA and Canada) since 1910, based on the 1950 Niagara Treaty. The treaty requires that during the daylight hours of the tourist season (8am-10pm local time, April 1-September 15) and 8am-9pm local time from September 16-October 31, the flow over Niagara Falls must not be less than 2,832 cubic meters per second (100,000 cubic feet per second). At other times, the flow must not be less than 1,416 cubic meters per second (50,000 cubic feet per second).

The treaty specifies that all water in excess of that required for domestic and sanitary purposes, navigation and the falls‘ flow may be diverted for power generation.

8. Boat cruises are available for tourists to be ferried to the falls. The American side offers the Maid of the Mist Boat Cruise, while the Hornblower Niagara Cruises services the Canadian side.

ships2-2Maid of the Mist (American boat – to the left, with passengers wearing blue raincoats) and the Hornblower (Canadian boat – to the right, with passengers wearing red raincoats)

9. There is a part of the pedestrian walkway at the brink of the falls of the Canadian side which is wet due to the mild mist or drizzle from the falls so many miles away! I experienced this when we were walking near the Horseshoe Falls. For those of you who went to the American side, is there such a part of the viewing walkway too?

pedestrian walkway-1                     Part of the pedestrian walkway, Canadian side, summer 2019

10. I was told that Niagara Falls ices up and the most recent occurrences were in 2014 and 2017. I could not imagine that such a large body of water could be frozen.

11. On the Canadian side, you can access the falls through Queen Victoria Park which features manicured gardens and walkways offering views of both the American and Horseshoe Falls.

Queen Victoria Park is the main parkland in Niagara Falls Canada, considered the centerpiece of the Niagara Falls recreational tourist area. It is opposite the American and Canadian Horseshoe Falls, established by a Provincial Park Act in 1885 and opened in 1888. It is operated by the Niagara Parks Commission.

It is known for its outstanding flower displays of daffodils and roses in-season. It is also the focal point for the annual winter Festival of Lights.

Tesla-1The Nikola Tesla Monument, Queen Victoria Park, Niagara Falls, Ontario, Canada – I was too tired to cross the street so I just zoomed to take this statue. I salute Tesla for the electrification of the world through his modern alternating current (AC) electricity supply system design. This statue shows Tesla standing atop an AC motor by sculptor Les Drysdale, unveiled  on July 9, 2006. You might ask, why this tribute? Well, Tesla designed the first hydro-electric power plant at Niagara Falls and, with George Westinghouse, started the electrification of the world.1

12. Clifton Hill is a major tourist promenade, with its main road leading to Niagara Falls and the Niagara River. It stretches from the River Road on the Niagara Parkway and intersects with Victoria Avenue. It offers a major amusement area and center for day and night life for all ages, with its gift shops, wax museums, haunted houses, video arcades, restaurants, and themed attractions. See a related post: Clifton Hill, Niagara: A Mecca of Fun.

13. The Niagara Falls International Rainbow Bridge, commonly known as the Rainbow Bridge, is an arch bridge across the Niagara River gorge which connects the cities of Niagara Falls, New York, USA (to the east), and Niagara Falls, Ontario, Canada (to the west). It was designed by architect Richard (Su Min) Lee, constructed at a cost of US$4 million, and officially opened on November 1, 1941 (77 years ago). It has a total length of 1,450 feet (440 meters) with a height of 202 feet (62 meters). It is maintained by the Niagara Falls Bridge Commission.

Rainbow Bridge-Collage                                 Rainbow Bridge, different perspectives, July 2019

14. The first time you actually see this wonderful natural attraction, you wonder how it was formed and how old it is.

Well, it was formed when glaciers receded at the end of the Wisconsin glaciation (the last Ice Age, about 10,000 years ago), and when the ice melted, the water from the newly formed Great Lakes carved a path through the Niagara Escarpment, en route to the Atlantic Ocean.

Southern Ontario, 18,000 years ago, was covered by 2-3 km thick of ice sheets and the latter advanced southward and gouged out the basins of the Great Lakes. They then melted northward for the last time and released vast quantities of melt water or fossil water into these basins.

The Niagara Peninsula became free of the ice about 12,500 years ago. The ice retreated northward, its melt waters began to flow down through what became Lake Erie, the Niagara River and Lake Ontario, originally with 5 spillways, at the escarpment at Queenston-Lewiston, and from there, the falls began its steady erosion through the bedrock.

Through time, the glacial melt waters were rerouted, but about 5,500 years ago, it once again routed through Southern Ontario, restoring the river and falls to their full power, and the falls reached the whirpool. A geological phenomenon occurred which left behind a 90-degree turn in the river we know today as the Whirlpool, and North America’s largest series of standing waves called the Whirlpool Rapids.

15. The Falls has moved back 7 miles in 12,500 years, and may be the fastest moving waterfalls in the world.

16. If you go close to the water you will see that it is green. Now, I wonder why it is so?

The green color of the Niagara River is proof of the erosive power of water. An estimated 60   tons of dissolved minerals are swept over Niagara Falls every minute! The green color comes from the dissolved salts and “rock flour“, i.e.,  very finely ground rock, picked up primarily from the limestone bed, but probably also from the shales and sandstones under the limestone cap at the falls.

17. Did this thought ever cross your mind while sitting at the edge of, or taking a picture along, the pedestrian walkway of the falls: What if I fall past the guardrails, can I swim and survive Niagara Falls?

Basically, you cannot survive, that is why some people atempt (and succeed) in committing suicide by falling there. Remember, 6 million cubic feet of water rush over the falls every minute during peak daytime hours, at 25-68 mph (above the falls-over the brink), and chances are, you will hit rocks!

If you do miss the rocks, your next threat are the bubbles. You see, the plunge pool under the waterfall is like a big surf and there is so much air mixed with the water so you cannot swim in it. Everything goes black in big surf because the sunlight is blocked out by the bubbles.

However, if you are so lucky and you survive the bubbles, the turbulence and darkness underwater would probably disorient you, and just hope and pray that you get pushed up! You also have to reckon with the debris around you; you will definitely get bashed underwater.

Well, if it is still not your time to go to heaven and manage to surface and float in a bruising current, the cold will hit you. Niagara’s waters are around 30ºF and it takes about 3 minutes before you black out, or the shock of cold water can trigger a heart attack.

The task force gives you less than 15 minutes in water that is freezing or below, and 15-30 minutes in water up to 40ºF. Pray that they rescue you before that!

Need I say more? Be careful, will you?!

18. With such a strong and powerful water flow every second 24/7, one cannot help but think of erosion and the future of Niagara Falls!

It seems that below the hard-rock formation, comprising about two-thirds of the cliff, lay the weaker, softer, sloping Rochester Formation (Lower Silurian). This formation was composed mainly of shale though it has some thin limestone layers and ancient fossils.

In time, the river eroded the soft layer that supported the hard layers, undercutting the hard caprock, which gave way in great chunks. This process, repeated countless times, eventually carved out the falls.

Alas, nothing lasts forever and the falls continues to erode but the rate has been greatly reduced due to flow control and diversion for hydro-power generation. Recession for at least the last 560 years has been estimated at 1-1.5 meters per year.

Its current rate of erosion is estimated at 30 cm (1 foot) per year, and could possibly be reduced to 1 foot per 10 years, a difficult responsibility of the International Joint Commission. Some major factors to reckon with include, among others: the abrasive action of the softer shales by fallen limestone boulders and no one knows when the next major rock falls will occur; climate change which may dry up the Great Lakes Basin and affect the water flow through the Niagara River; and, the action of frost from the spray and the dissolving action of the spray itself.

All things considered, scientists speculate that perhaps 2,000 years from now, the American Falls could dry up. The Canadian Falls will notch back for about 15,000 years, traveling back about 4  miles to a softer riverbed, after which the rate of erosion will change significantly, and the falls could be replaced by a series of rapids.

Fifty thousand years from now, at the present rate of erosion, the remaining 20 miles to Lake Erie will have been undermined. There will not be a falls anymore, but there will still be a river at work.

Let us all pray that the plans of the institutions responsible for the falls will succeed in this regard. Thank God it will not happen in our lifetime so, dearest Seniors, if you have not yet seen Niagara Falls, visit it soon and marvel at its beauty and power!

The information was obtained from the following Wikipedia pages: Niagara Falls, Ontario2; Rainbow Bridge (Niagara Falls) 3; Clifton Hill, Niagara Falls4; Skylon Tower5, and Queen Victoria Park6, as well as the websites – https://www.niagaraparks.com/visit-niagara-parks/plan-your-visit/niagara-falls-geology-facts-figures/, www.popularmechanics.com/adventure/outdoors/tips/a6960/how-to-survive-an-accidental-plunge-over-niagara-falls/ and www.cliftonhill.com

Did you find this post informative? I would like to hear from you re other facts you might want to add to this post, or comment on the above facts. Simply scroll and click “Leave a comment”. Do share this post with your Facebook friends, follow me by clicking on the bottom right corner of your device, and do not forget to like this post. Do visit my post: NIAGARA FALLS, THE CANADIAN SIDE: AN AWESOME SIGHT TO BEHOLD. Thank you.

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1www.teslasociety.com/victoria.htm

2“Niagara Falls, Ontario,” accessed August 6, 2019, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Naiagara_Falls,_Ontario

3Rainbow Bridge (Niagara Falls),“ accessed August 6, 2019, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rainbow_Bridge_(Niagara_Falls)

4“Clifton Hill, Niagara Falls,“ accessed August 6, 2019, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Clifton_Hill,)Niagara_Falls

5Skylon Tower,“ accessed August 6, 2019, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Skylon_Tower

6Queen Victoria Park,“ accessed August 6, 2019, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Queen_Victoria_Park  

Now You Know: THE SAN PEDRO BELL OF BAUANG, LA UNION: RETURNED AFTER 115 YEARS

Did you know, dearest Senior Citizens, that there was another Philippine church bell taken by the Americans during the Philippine-American War1 in 1901?

Yes, there was! It is called the San Pedro Bell, taken from Saints Peter and Paul Church in Bauang2, La Union3, one of the oldest Catholic churches in the Philippines.

Sounds like Balangiga4, right? Well, not exactly. Let Tita S tell you about it because you might want to visit it this year and appreciate it more.

The San Pedro bell is the church bell5 that was originally presented to Friar Mariano Garcia on behalf of the Church of Saints Peter and Paul in 1883 by Governor Mariano Balancio, and Hilario Calica.

san pedro bell-CBCPNewsSource: CBCP News

Named after one of the patron saints of Bauang, Saint Peter (“San Pedro” in Tagalog), the bell is made of copper, gold, and silver, and weighs 883 pounds.

sanpedrobell-newsinfo.inquirer.netThe San Pedro Bell of Bauang, La Union, Philippines – Source: newsinfo.inquirer.net

It remained in the church belfry until 1901 when it was removed by US forces stationed in the Philippines.

The circumstances surrounding the removal of the bell and its journey to the USA remain lost in history.

However, US Military Academy (USMA) Chief of Staff Colonel Wayne A. Green recalled that the San Pedro bell was almost destroyed at the outbreak of the Philippine-American War1 in 1899, when bells were being melted down and made into guns. The Americans claimed that the advance of American forces in La Union3 “saved” the bell. Thus, the bell remained intact and the Americans brought it to the USA as a war souvenir.

General Thomas Barry, a West Point graduate from Class 1877, was one of the American Army officers who served in the Philippines during the Philippine-American War1. In 1915, he became the USMA’s 21st Superintendent, and during his time there, he presented the bell to the US Military Academy at West Point, New York, where it remained for the next century.

“But after its arrival in West Point, the San Pedro bell remained in the belfry of the Most Trinity Chapel for years, unhung, unrung, sitting in silence. It was discovered in 1959, during the chapel expansion, and for several years, it rested outside the chapel, proudly sitting in a place of honor ….”

In 2015, Former United States Navy officers Dennis Wright and Dan McKinnon were part of a group of American Veterans who re-discovered the bell in West Point. These American ex-servicemen, along with Dr. Rolando Borrinaga of the Philippines’ National Commission for Culture and the Arts, “campaigned to have the bells repatriated”.

Subsequent research identified that the bell belonged to the Church of Saints Peter and Paul in Bauang2, La Union3. The American veteran group then worked with Fr. Ronald R. O. Chan (the parish priest of Saints Peter and Paul Church in Bauang2, in La Union3) and Mayor P. de Guzman III to formally request that the bell be returned to its home church.

Filipino cadet Don Stanley Dalisay of Tigloy, Batangas, an economics and operations research junior, helped to establish the bell’s history by taking pictures and sending them to two University of Santo Tomas (UST) professors who were enlisted in 2015 to research the subject.

Obviously, no one in West Point knew about the bell’s history until USMA’s Superintendent Lt. Gen. Robert L. Caslen, Jr. received a letter on November 10, 2015 from Fr. Ronald Chan.

Based on the UST Professors’ research, the letter basically requested the USMA to return the bell. After verifying that the markings on the bell matched the descriptions provided by Fr. Chan, the superintendent responded two months later: “While we have been honored to guard and display this bell for the past several decades, we would be glad to return the bell to its rightful home.” He added that this was being done as a gesture of goodwill and in recognition of American’s enduring friendship with the Philippines.

Special recognition and thanks were extended to the following: Lieutenant General Casten, Jr., Captain Dennis L. Wright (USN, Retired), Rear Admiral Daniel W. McKinnon, Jr. (SC, USN, Retired) and Captain John P. Gilmer (USMA ’74), and Ambassador Raul R. C. Rabe.

Appropriate arrangements were eventually made for the bell’s transfer, culminating in a valediction ceremony that was held at the Most Holy Trinity Catholic Chapel on April 29, 2016. Around a hundred members of the Filipino-American community, Philippine Embassy officials, diplomats and scholars, and US Military Academy (USMA) cadets, staff, officers and guests, gathered for the send-off.

USMA Chief of Staff Colonel Wayne A. Green remarked that sending the San Pedro bell home was “the right and honorable thing to do.” He added: “And so we are here today, in the spirit of friendship and cooperation with our friends from the Philippines, to say farewell to the San Pedro bell, which has been part of the West Point community for many years, and return it to its rightful place.”

Consul General (Ret.) Sonny Busa, who represented the Filipino American community, the US-Philippine Society, and the West Point Society of the Philippines, at the hand-over, pointed out that “the bell would have seen many momentous historical events in the history of America: two World Wars, the Korean War, the Vietnam War, the Cold War, Desert Storm, Iraq, and Afghanistan. The bell has seen thousands of America’s finest young men and women pass by. It has rung for their weddings. It has tolled for their funerals. It has rung for their homecomings. It has tolled for their departures.”

A choral rendition of Bayan Ko (“My Country”), led by a dozen members of the Washington, DC based-Philippine American Foundation for Charities (PAFC), followed Busa’s remarks, and the Filipino cadets and several guests joined in the singing.

After the mass, the chaplain rang the bell, while others gathered around the bell, and took turns to ring it too. The bell was then unbolted from its base, carted off by a half dozen professional movers, loaded on to a flat bed truck, and taken to a warehouse where it was crated for shipping.

After a few days, the San Pedro bell was airlifted to Clark Air Force Base in the Philippines, then finally transferred to its original home – the Church of Saints Peter and Paul – where a big celebration was set on May 23, 2016, according to the Wikipedia page “Bauang”.6

San_Pedro_bell-common.wikimedia.orgSource: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:San_Pedro_bell.jpg

The return of the San Pedro bell revived the interest for the return of the three Balangiga bells7 to the Eastern Samar8 town of Balangiga4. The latter event happened after two years. See a related post: THE BALANGIGA BELLS–A TIMELY HOMECOMING AFTER 117 YEARS!

Most of the information was obtained from www.globalnation.inquirer.net.

Did you find this post informative? Have you been to the Church of Saints Peter and Paul in Bauang, La Union? Have you seen the San Pedro bell? I would like to hear from you. Simply scroll to “Leave a Reply” and enter your comment in the box. Please scroll and click the “Like” tab and “Facebook” to share this post. Do not forget to follow me by clicking “Follow” on the lower right corner of your device.

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The following terms are defined for the benefit of interested readers, especially non-Filipinos, those with “Senior-Moments”, or those too busy or lazy to Google such terms:

1The Philippine-American War was an armed conflict between the First Philippine Republic9 (FPR) and the US. It lasted from February 4, 1899 to July 2, 1902. Filipino nationalists viewed the conflict as a continuation of the struggle for independence that began in 1896 with the Philippine Revolution10, while the US government regarded it as an insurrection. The conflict arose when the FPR objected to the terms of the Treaty of Paris11 under which the US took possession of the Philippines from Spain, ending the short Spanish-American War (April 21, 1898 – August 13, 1898). The information was obtained from the Wikipedia page “Philippine-American War”.12

2Bauang is a first class municipality13 in the province14 of La Union3, in the Ilocos Region (Region 1)15, in the island of Luzon16, in the Philippines, according to Wikipedia page “Bauang”.6

3La Union is a province14 in the Philippines located in the Ilocos Region (Region 1)15, in the island of Luzon16, in the Philippines. Its capital is the city of San Fernando, which also serves as the regional center of the whole Ilocos Region. This province is bordered by Ilocos Sur to the north, Benguet to the east, Pangasinan to the south, and to the west by the South China Sea (West Philippine Sea). The information was obtained from the Wikipedia page “La Union”.17

4Balangiga is a fourth class municipality13 in the southern coast of the island of Samar facing Leyte Gulf, in the province14 of Eastern Samar8, in Eastern Visayas (Region VIII)18, in the Philippines. It sits at the mouth of the Balangiga River. The information was obtained from the Wikipedia page “Balangiga”.19

5A church bell, in the Christian tradition, is a bell rung in a church for a variety of reasons and can be heard outside the building. Examples are: to call worshippers to the church for a communal service, to announce the time of daily prayer, to signify special occasions like wedding or funeral service, and some believe to drive out demons. This cup-shaped metal resonator, hung within a steeple or bell tower of a church or religious building, has a pivoted clapper hanging inside which strikes the sides when the bell is swung. The information was obtained from the Wikipedia page “Church bell”.20

6“Bauang,” accessed November 2, 2018, https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bauang.

7The Balangiga bells are three church bells5 taken by the United States Army from the Church of San Lorenzo de Martir, the town church of Balangiga4, diocese of Borongan21, province14 of Eastern Samar8, in the Philippines, as war trophies22 after reprisals following the Balangiga massacre in 1901 during the Philippine-American War1. The information was obtained from the Wikipedia page “Balangiga bells”.23

8Eastern Samar is a province14 in Eastern Visayas (Region VIII)18, in the Philippines, which occupies the eastern portion of the island of Samar, according to the Wikipedia page “Eastern Samar”.24

9The First Philippine Republic, or Malolos Republic, was a nascent revolutionary government in the Philippines, formally established with the proclamation of the Malolos Constitution on January 21, 1899, in the city of Malolos, province of Bulacan. It ended during the capture of President Emilio Aguinaldo by the American forces on March 23, 1901, in Palanan, Isabela. The information was obtained from theWikipedia page “First Philippine Republic”.25

10The Philippine Revolution was a revolution that began in August 23, 1896 when the Spanish authorities discovered the Katipunan, an anti-colonial secret organization, and ended on August 13, 1898, after Emilio Aguinaldo issued the Philippine Declaration of Independence on June 12. This information was obtained from the Wikipedia page “Philippine Revolution”.26

11The Treaty of Paris was an agreement, signed on December 10, 1898, that involved Spain relinquishing nearly all the remaining Spanish Empire, especially Cuba, and ceding Guam, Puerto Rico, and the Philippines to the US, thus ending the Spanish-American War27. It came into effect on April 11, 1899, when the documents of ratification were exchanged. The cessation of the Philippines involved a payment of US$20 million from the US to Spain. The information was obtained from the Wikipedia page “Treaty of Paris (1898)”.28

12“Philippine-American War,” accessed November 2, 2018,

https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Philippine-American_War.

13A municipality is a small, single urban administrative division, or local government unit (LGU)29, in the Philippines which has corporate status and powers of self-government or jurisdiction as granted by law. It is a unit under a province14, subdivided into barangays30, a town, and is locally called “bayan”. In the Philippines, a municipality is headed by a mayor, a vice mayor and members of the Sangguniang Bayan (legislative branch). It can enact local policies and laws, enforce them, and govern its jurisdictions. It can enter into contracts and other transactions through its elected and appointed officials, and can tax as well. It enforces all local and national laws. There are almost 1,500 municipalities in the Philippines. The information was obtained from the Wikipedia page “Municipalities of the Philippines”.31

14A province is the primary administrative and political division in the Philippines. It is the second-level administrative sub-division of a region32. There are 81 provinces (called “lalawigan”) in the Philippines; see a related post: Foreign Seniors Ask: WHAT ARE PROVINCES IN THE PHILIPPINES?. Each province is governed by an elected legislature called the Sangguniang Panlalawigan and by an elected governor. The information was  obtained from the Wikipedia page “Province”.33 

15The Ilocos Region (Region 1) is a Philippine region located in the island group of Luzon16, with San Fernando (La Union) as its regional center. It has 5 local government units (LGUs)29: Dagupan, Ilocos Norte, Ilocos Sur, La Union3 and Pangasinan. The information was obtained from the Wikipedia page “Ilocos Region”.34

16Luzon is one (of the 3) major geographical divisions of the Philippines. It is the largest (ranked 15th largest in the world), most populated island as well as the economical and political center of the country. It is composed of 8 regions32: Bicol, Cagayan Valley, CALABARZON, Central Luzon, Cordillera, Ilocos15, MIMAROPA and the National Capital Region. The 2 other geographical divisions of the Philippines are Visayas35 and Mindanao36. The information was obtained from the Wikipedia page “Luzon”.37

17“La Union,” accessed November 2, 2018, https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/La_Union.

18Region VIII, called the Eastern Visayas Region, is a Philippine region32 located in the island group of Visayas35, with Tacloban as its regional center. It lies on the east central section of the Philippines and faces the Philippine Sea to the east. It has 8 local government units (LGUs)29: Biliran, Eastern Samar8, Leyte, Northern Samar, Ormoc, Samar, Southern Leyte and Tacloban. The information was obtained from the Wikipedia page “Eastern Visayas”.38

19“Balangiga,” accessed November 2, 2018, https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Balangiga.

20“Church bell,” accessed November 2, 2018, https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Church_bell.

21Borongan is a component city39 and the capital of the province of Eastern Samar, in the Eastern Visayas Region18, Philippines. It was founded on September 8, 1619 and became a city on June 21, 2007, according to the Wikipedia page “Borongan”.40

22A war trophy is an object or souvenir taken from a battlefield after a victory, and displayed as a cultural object, and becomes the property of the state to which the soldiers responsible for the capture belonged. The information was obtained from the Wikipedia page “War trophy”.41

23“Balangiga bells,” accessed November 2, 2018, https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Balangiga_bells.

24“Eastern Samar,” accessed November 2, 2018, https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eastern_Samar.

25“First Philippine Republic,” accessed November 2, 2018, https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/First_Philippine_Republic.

26“Philippine Revolution,” accessed November 2, 2018, https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/First_Philippine_Revolution.

27“Spanish-American War,” accessed November 2, 2018, https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spanish_American_War.

28“Treaty of Paris,” accessed November 2, 2018, https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Treaty_of-Paris.

29A local government unit (LGU) in the Philippines is divided into 3 levels: provinces14 and independent cities42, component cities39 and municipalities13; and, barangays30.

30A barangay is the smallest administrative division in the Philippines, headed by a barangay captain, aided by a Sangguniang Barangay (Barangay Council). It is the native Filipino term for a district or village. It was formerly called a barrio. In a metropolitan area, a barangay is an inner city neighborhood, a suburb, or a suburban neighborhood. The word barangay originated from the term “balangay”, a kind of boat used by a group of Austronesian people who migrated to the Philippines. A number of barangays grouped together is called a district. The information was obtained from the Wikipedia page “Barangay”.43

31“Municipalities of the Philippines,” accessed November 2, 2018, https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Municipalities_of_The_Philippines.

32A region is the first-order administrative division in the Philippines. There are 18 regions in the Philippines, based on geographical, cultural and ethnological characteristics. See a related post: Foreign Seniors Ask: WHAT ARE THE REGIONS OF THE PHILIPPINES? NOTE: It is further subdivided in provinces14, composed of cities and municipalities13 (or towns), which in turn, are divided into barangays30, formerly called barrios. The information is obtained from the Wikipedia page “Regions of the Philippines”.44

33“Province,” accessed November 2, 2018, https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Province.

34“Ilocos Region,” accessed November 2, 2018, https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ilocos_Region.

35Visayas is one (of the 3) major geographical divisions of the Philippines. It covers 3 administrative regions: Central Visayas, Eastern Visayas18 and Western Visayas. It consists of 6 major islands (Bohol, Cebu, Leyte, Panay and Samar), mostly surrounded by the Visayan Sea, and is composed of 16 provinces. The 2 other geographical divisions of the Philippines are Luzon16 and Mindanao36. The information was obtained from the Wikipedia page “Visayas”.45

36Mindanao is one (of the 3) major geographical divisions of the Philippines. It is the second largest island of the country and covers 6 administrative regions: CARAGA Region, Davao Region, Northern Mindanao, SOCCSKSARGEN, Zamboanga Peninsula, and ARMM. It is composed of 22 provinces14 and 33 cities47. The 2 other geographical divisions of the Philippines are Luzon16 and Visayas35. The information was obtained from the Wikipedia page “Mindanao”.46

37“Luzon,” accessed November 2, 2018, https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Luzon.

38“Eastern Visayas,” accessed November 2, 2018, https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eastern_Visayas.

39A component city is a type of city47 in the Philippines which does not meet the requirements of a highly urbanized city48. It is under the jurisdiction of a province14. If such a city is located along the boundaries of 2 or more provinces, it shall be considered part of the province of which it used to be a municipality13. The information was obtained from the Wikipedia page “Cities of the Philippines”.49

40“Borongan,” accessed November 2, 2018, https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Borongan.

41“War trophy,” accessed November 2, 2018, https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/War_trophy

42An independent city is a type of city47 in the Philippines which is administratively and legally not subject to a province14so it does not share its tax revenues with any province14. The national government and its agencies serve such a city through sub-offices of the region32 it belongs to. It is subdivided into 2: highly urbanized city48 orindependent component city50. The information was obtained from the Wikipedia page “Cities of the Philippines”.49

 43“Barangay,” accessed November 2, 2018, https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Barangay.

 44“Regions of the Philippines,” accessed November 2, 2018, http://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Regions_of_the_Philippines.

45“Visayas,” accessed November 2, 2018, https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Visayas.

46“Mindanao,” accessed November 2, 2018, https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mindanao.

47A city is the local government unit (LGU)29 in the Philippines headed by a mayor elected by popular vote. A vice mayor serves as the presiding officer of the Sangguniang Panlungsod (city council), which acts as the city’s legislative body.

48A highly urbanized city (HUC) is a type of city47 in the Philippines with a minimum population of 200,000 as certified by the Philippine Statistics Authority (PSA), and with the latest annual income of at least 50 million pesos. There are currently 33 such cities in the Philippines; see a related post: Foreign Seniors Ask: HOW MANY CITIES ARE THERE IN THE PHILIPPINES?. The information was obtained from the Wikipedia page “Cities of the Philippines”.49

49“Cities of the Philippines,” accessed November 2, 2018, https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cities_of_the_Philipippines.

50An independent component city (ICC) is a city47 in the Philippines which is independent from the province14 in which it is geographically located. It has a charter that explicitly prohibits its residents to vote for provincial officials. The information was obtained from the Wikipedia page “Cities of the Philippines”.49

SAN ISIDRO LABRADOR PARISH CHURCH AND CONVENT, SIQUIJOR

The Lazi Church, or San Isidro Labrador Parish Church, is a Roman Catholic church in the municipality1 of Lazi2 (formerly Tigbawan), in the province3 of Siquijor4, Philippines.

1024px-St_Isidore_the_Laborer_Church_in_Lazi,_SiquijorGreg – originally posted to Flickr https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lazi_Church#/media/File:St._Isidore_the_Laborer_Church_in_Lazi,_Siquijor.jpg

It is under the jurisdiction of the Diocese of Dumaguete5. It became an independent parish on August 8, 1857. The sea stone-wood, neoclassical-style6 church was built in 1884 by Filipino artisans, followed by the bell tower the following year, under the direction of Recollect7 priest Father Toribio Sanchez. The church has two pulpits, and has retained its original retabloand wood floorings.

This church was my group’s fourth stop (out of six) during our one-day Siquijor Coastal Tour. We rented an air-conditioned van owned by Yane’s Adventures Van Services6 after we arrived at the port of Siquijor. We were lucky to have a very cheerful and accommodating driver, Jimmy Bueno.2-parking-Jimmy-cropped

I wanted to enter this 135-year old church, see the belfry, light a candle, and take pictures, including the grotto, but when we visited it on March 25, 2019, it was closed for renovation. Perhaps, this is one reason why I should return to this island province3.1-Lazi-Church-constructionGreat news, target date of completion is May 21, 2019! Please give me feedback if this target was met.

Anyway, at the opposite side of the street is the church’s big convent. The construction of this U-shaped, bahay na bato10 convent was made with coral stones and hardwood, commenced in 1887, and completed in 1891, also under Fr. Toribio.

1024px-Lazi_Convent_ColorThe Lazi Convent in 2012 (Carmelo Bayarcal, own work created June 10, 2012, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lazi_Church#/media/File:Lazi_Convent_Color.JPG)

1-Lazi-trees-afar-ok

It is one of the largest convents built during the Spanish colonial era11, at 42 meters by 38 meters (138 ft. by 125 ft.). The ground floor has stonewalls and the second floor has wooden panels. A street sweeper I talked with said that this convent is the largest and oldest in Asia. I need to research to verify that claim.

The convent is funded by donations from parishes and missions of the Recollects7. Partitions of the convent were removed, but the original structure was maintained. It now houses the Siquijor Heritage Museum which has collections of important church relics and paraphernalia.

Unfortunately, I did not have the chance to enter this convent. I merely took pictures of it from the road. I also admired, took pictures, and touched the three trees along the street which look like at least a hundred years old. BeFunky-collage-Lazi Trees

Lazi Church was declared a National Historical Landmark12 by the National Historical Commission of the Philippines13 in 1984, and a National Cultural Treasure14 by the National Museum of the Philippines15 in 2001. It was also nominated to be part of the UNESCO World Heritage Sites16 Tentative List since 2006, under the collective group of Baroque17 Churches of the Philippines (Extension), together with the churches of Patrocinio de Maria in Boljoon, Cebu; La Immaculada Concepcion in Guiuan, Eastern Samar; San Pedro Apostol in Loboc, Bohol; and San Mattias in Tumauini, Isabela. In 2014, the government announced its plan to nominate this church in the World Heritage List.

800px-Allan_Jay_Quesada_-_Lazi_Church_DSC_2365Lazi Church in 2016 (Allan Jay Quesada, own work, 20 April 2016, https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Allan_Jay_Quesada_-_Lazi_Church_DSC_2365.jpg)

The information was obtained from the Wikipedia pages “Lazi, Siquijor”18 and “Siquijor”19.

We paid for our Siquijor Coastal Tour and all comments are based on my personal experience in this province3.

You can read related posts about my Siquijor tour: TAKE A TARZAN-LIKE DIVE AT CAMBUGAHAY FALLS, SIQUIJOR!, ENCHANTING 400-YEAR-OLD BALETE TREE AND FISH SPA, SIQUIJOR, SERENE AND SPONTANEOUS SALAGDOONG BEACH, SIQUIJORGET BEWITCHED AT HAPITANAN, SIQUIJOR, PALITON BEACH: THE LITTLE BORACAY OF SIQUIJOR,  and Now You Know – SIQUIJOR: ITS LEGEND, HISTORY, TRADITIONS, AND BELIEFS.

Did you find this post informative? I would like to hear from you re your visit to this historical church and convent. Simply scroll and click “Leave a comment”. Do share this post with your Facebook friends, follow me by clicking on the bottom right corner of your device, and do not forget to like this post. Thank you.

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The following terms are defined for interested readers, especially non-Filipinos, those with “Senior-Moments”, and those too busy or lazy to Google such terms:

 1A municipality is a small, single urban administrative division, or local government unit (LGU)20, in the Philippines which has corporate status and powers of self-government or jurisdiction as granted by law. It is a unit under a province3, subdivided into barangays21, and is called town, or “bayan”. In the Philippines, a municipality is headed by a mayor, a vice mayor and members of the Sangguniang Bayan (legislative branch). It can enact local policies and laws, enforce them, and govern its jurisdictions. It can enter into contracts and other transactions through its elected and appointed officials, and can tax as well. It enforces all local and national laws. The information was obtained from Wikipedia page “Municipalities of the Philippines.”22

 2Lazi, formerly called Tigbawan, is a coastal municipality1 in the island province3 of Siquijor4, with 18 barangays21. It is located in the southeastern side of the island, between the towns of San Juan in the west and Maria from the east. It is known for its Roman Catholic church called San Isidro Labrador Parish Church (see above), the Convent in front of it (see above), the 400-yo enchanting balete tree with fish spa (see my post: ENCHANTING 400-YEAR-OLD BALETE TREE AND FISH SPA, SIQUIJOR), and Cambugahay Falls (where you can accept the Tarzan Swing-Dive Challenge; see my post: TAKE A TARZAN-LIKE DIVE AT CAMBUGAHAY FALLS, SIQUIJOR!). The information was obtained from the Wikipedia page “Lazi, Siquijor”18 and “Siquijor”19. Visit this site for more information: http://www.phtourguide.com/municipality-of-lazi-in-siquijor/

 3A province is the primary administrative and political division in the Philippines. It is the second-level administrative sub-division of a region23. There are 81 provinces (called “lalawigan”) in the Philippines. Each province is governed by an elected legislature called the Sangguniang Panlalawigan and by an elected governor. In the Philippines, a province is divided into cities24 and municipalities1 (or towns), which in turn, are divided into barangays21, formerly called barrios. The information was obtained from Wikipedia page “Provinces of the Philippines.”25 See a related post: Foreign Seniors Ask: WHAT ARE PROVINCES IN THE PHILIPPINES?

 4Siquijor is an island province3 of the Philippines located in the Central Visayas Region (Region VII)26. Its capital is the municipality1 which is also called Siquijor. This coralline island is predominantly hilly, and in many places the hills reach the sea, producing steep cliffs. Geographically, Cebu is to the north, Negros to the west, Bohol to the northeast, and to the south, across the Bohol Sea, is Mindanao. It has a long-time reputation as a place of magic, sorcery, and mystical traditions. It is also well known for its festivals that focus on healing rituals where incantations are sung, while the old folks make potions out of herbs, roots, insects, and tree barks. The information was obtained from the Wikipedia page “Siquijor”.19

5Dumaguete is the capital city24 and main port of Negros Oriental, a province3 in Central Visayas (Region VII)26, of the Philippines. This laid-back university town is called the “City of Gentle People”. It has a charming sea-front boulevard, the most popular destination in the Philippines for retiring abroad, and among the top 10 tourist destinations in the country. The information was obtained from the Wikivoyage page “Dumaguete”.27

6Neoclassical architecture is an architectural style that began in the mid-18th century, characterized by grandeur of scale, simplicity of geometric forms, dramatic use of columns, Greek/Roman detail, and a preference for blank walls.28

7The Recollects were a French reform branch of the Order of Friars Minor created at the end of the 15th century, commonly known today as the Franciscans, best known for their presence as missionaries in various parts of the world. They wore gray habits and pointed hoods, took vows of poverty, and devoted their lives to prayer, penance, and spiritual reflection. In 1897, Pope Leo XIII officially dissolved the Recollects order and integrated it as a part of the Franciscan order, officially changing their name to Friars Minor. The information was obtained from the Wikipedia page “Recollects”.29

8A retablo is the altarpiece, the main feature of old Roman Catholic churches. This upright panel, intricately carved, gilded, polychromed, and highly decorated, has a wooden frame and contains ledges and panels behind and above the altar. It is embellished with decorative features like rosettes, grapevines, scrolls, and cherubs, crafted by native artisans. It has several niches for the patron saint, usually located in the topmost portion, while other saints, affiliated to the religious order which takes care of the church, occupy both sides of the second and third levels.30

9Yane’s Adventures Van Services information – Address: Pangi, Siquijor, Siquijor; Contact numbers: 09052133123, 09069732330 and 09183124461, look for Jade JumawanPestillos, and request for our very accommodating and cheerful driver, Jimmy Bueno.

10Bahay na bato, literally “house of stone”, is the Filipino term for a type of building originating during the Philippines’ Spanish Colonial period11, with a rectangular plan, popular among the elite and middle-class. It is an elevated, overhanging wooden upper-story nipa hut31 with balustrades, ventanillas (small windows), and capiz32 shell sliding windows. It stands on Spanish-style solid stone blocks or bricks and posts as foundation, and not wood, bamboo stilts, or timber posts. Roofing is either Chinese tiled roof or thatch (nipa, sago, palm or cogon), many today have been replaced by galvanized, or other modern, roofing. The information was obtained from the Wikipedia page “Bahay na bato”.33

11The Spanish colonial era was the historical part of the Philippines from 1521, when European explorer Ferdinand Magellan arrived in the country, and ended in 1898, with the outbreak of the Philippine Revolution34. The information was obtained from the Wikipedia page “History of the Philippines from 1521 to 1898”.35

12A National Historical Landmark of the Philippines is a place or an object that is associated with an event, achievement, characteristics or modification that presents a turning point or stage in history. The information was obtained from the Wikipedia page “Category: National Historical Landmarks of the Philippines”.36

13The National Historical Commission of the Philippines (NHCP) is a government agency of the Philippines which promotes Philippine history and cultural heritage through research, dissemination, conservation, sites management, and heraldry works, thereby inculcating awareness and appreciation of the noble deeds and ideals of our heroes and other illustrious Filipinos, instilling pride in the Filipino people, and rekindling the Filipino spirit through the lessons of history. The information was obtained from the Wikipedia page “National Historical Commission of the Philippines”.37

14A National Cultural Treasure (NCT) of the Philippines is a tangible (movable and immovable) or intangible heritage property declared by the National Commission for Culture and Arts38 and other cultural agencies such as the National Museum of the Philippines15, National Library of the Philippines39, and National Archives of the Philippines40. Such declarations are authorized under the National Cultural Heritage Act of 200941 and recognized within the Cultural Properties of the Philippines42 by the Philippine government. The title of NCT is the highest designation given to a “unique cultural property found locally, possessing outstanding historical, cultural, artistic and/or scientific value which is highly significant and important to the country and nation”.43 The information was obtained from the Wikipedia page “National Cultural Treasure”.44

15The National Museum of the Philippines is a government institution in the Philippines which serves as the educational, scientific and cultural institution in preserving the various permanent national collections featuring the ethnographic, anthropological, archaeological and visual artistry of the Philippines. It was formed on October 29, 1901, with headquarters in Padre Burgos Avenue, in Rizal Park, Ermita, Manila. Since 1998, it has been the regulatory and enforcement agency of the national government in restoring and safeguarding important cultural properties, sites and reservations throughout the Philippines. It is under the Department of Education and the National Commission for Culture and Arts38. The information was obtained from the Wikipedia page “National Museum of the Philippines”.45 Visit its website: www.nationalmuseum.gov.ph

16A UNESCO World Heritage Site (WHS) is a unique landmark, or geographically and historically identifiable place, which is selected by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) as having cultural, historical, scientific, physical or other form of significance, and is legally protected by international treaties. Sites are demarcated by UNESCO as protected zones. The list is maintained by the International World Heritage Program administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 state parties which are elected by the General Assembly. Under certain conditions, listed sites can obtain funds from the World Heritage Fund. The information was obtained from the Wikipedia page “World Heritage Site”.46

17Baroque architecture began in Rome, Italy, in the late 16th century, which conveys grandeur and drama, most often used in palaces and churches. It includes curving forms, oval shapes, and a combination of concave and convex forms that make walls seem to undulate, or appear wavy, with a strong sense of motion. It groups things together like columns and decorative flourishes on building surfaces. Architectural elements are repeated across a surface. It uses distortion to make figures elongated, broken, or manipulated in some manner to make them stand out. Buildings have columns, sometimes topped with capitals and large volutes, scroll, or spiral forms. Sculptural wall elements will often project from the surface which is full of forms to increase the interplay of light and shadow across them. Inside, Baroque structures will often have ceilings painted in bright colors, made to fool one’s eye into believing one is looking at the sky. Buildings also have very rich surface treatments, including interiors with stucco47, various colored marbles, and gold gilt or thin sheets of gold applied to surfaces. Most Baroque churches have vaulted ceilings, supported by a series of interconnected arches.48

18“Lazi, Siquijor,” accessed March 8, 2019,https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lazi,_Siquijor

19“Siquijor,” accessed March 8, 2019,https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Siquijor

20A local government unit (LGU) in the Philippines is divided into 3 levels: provinces3 and independent cities49; component cities50 and municipalities1; and, barangays21, according to Wikipedia page “Local government in the Philippines”.51

21A barangay in the Philippines is the smallest administrative division in the Philippines, headed by a barangay captain, aided by a Sangguniang Barangay (Barangay Council). It is the native Filipino term for a district or village. It was formerly called a barrio. In a metropolitan area, a barangay is an inner city neighborhood, a suburb, or a suburban neighborhood. The word barangay originated from the term “balangay”, a kind of boat used by a group of Austronesian people who migrated to the Philippines. A number of barangays grouped together is called a district. The information was obtained from Wikipedia page “Barangay.”52

22“Municipalities of the Philippines,” accessed January 29, 2019,  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Municipalities_of_the_Philippines

23A region is the first-order administrative division in the Philippines. There are 17 regions in the Philippines, based on geographical, cultural and ethnological characteristics. It is further subdivided in provinces3, composed of cities and municipalities1 (or towns), which in turn, are divided into barangays21. The regions were initially identified in 1972, through Presidential Decree No. 1 of President Ferdinand Marcos. Since then, other regions have been created and some provinces have been “transferred” to another region. The information was obtained from Wikipedia page “Regions of the Philippines.”53

24A city is the local government unit20 in the Philippines headed by a mayor elected by popular vote. A vice-mayor serves as the presiding officer of the city’s legislative body – the Sangguniang Panlungsod (city council). The information was obtained from Wikipedia page “Cities of the Philippines.”54

25“Provinces of the Philippines,” accessed July 17, 2018,  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Provinces_of_the_Philippines

26Central Visayas (Region VII) of the Philippines is a Philippine region23 located in the island group of Visayas55, with Cebu City as its regional center. It has 7 local government units20 (LGUs): Bohol, Cebu, Cebu City, Lapu-Lapu, Mandaue, Negros Oriental, and Siquijor4. The information was obtained from Wikipedia page “Regions of the Philippines.”53

27“Dumaguete,” accessed March 8, 2019,https://en.wikivoyage.org/wiki/Dumaguete

28https://www.britannica.com/art/Neoclassical-architecture

29“Recollects,” accessed March 8, 2019,https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Recollects

30http://www.nationalmuseum.gov.ph/nationalmuseumbeta/Collections/Retablo.html

31The nipa hut, bahay kubopayag or kamalig, is a type of native, stilt house of the indigenous people of the Philippines before the Spaniards arrived in 1521, similar to neighboring countries in Southeast Asia like Indonesia and Malaysia. It often serves as an icon of Philippine culture or, more specifically, rural cultures, designed to endure the climate and environment of the country. It was made from plant materials, like bamboo, which was easily accessible and acquired to rebuild it when damaged by a storm or earthquake. The information was obtained from the Wikipedia page “Nipa hut”.56

32Capiz, or kapis, is the shell of the windowpane oyster (Placuna placenta), an edible, bivalve marine mollusk in the family of Placunidae. It is durable and translucent so it is used as a glass substitute for windows, and even decorative items like chandeliers and lampshades. The information was obtained from the Wikipedia page “Windowpane oyster”.57

33“Bahay na bato,” accessed March 8, 2019,https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bahay_na_Bato

34The Philippine Revolution is the revolution that started on August 23, 1896 when the Spaniards discovered the Katipunan58, and ended in August 13, 1898. The Filipinos were victorious, and this resulted in the expulsion of the Spanish colonial government, as well as the: signing of the Pact of Biak-na-Bato59 in 1897; resumption of hostilities during the Spanish-American War60 in 1898; the establishment of the First Philippine Republic61; and, the outbreak of the Philippine-American War62 in 1899. The information was obtained from the Wikipedia page “Philippine Revolution”.63

35“History of the Philippines from 1521 to 1898,” accessed October 16, 2018, https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_the_Philippines

36“Category: National Historical Landmarks of the Philippines,” accessed October 16, 2018, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Category:_National_Historical_Landmarks_of_the_Philippines

37“National Historical Commission of the Philippines,” accessed October 16, 2018, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/National_Historical_Commission_of_the_Philippines

38The National Commission for Culture and Arts is the official government agency for culture in the Philippines, formed in 1987, with headquarters in General Luna Street, Intramuros, Manila. It is the overall policy making body, coordinating, and grants-giving agency for the preservation, development and promotion of Philippine arts and culture. Its parent department is the Office of the President of the Philippines and its sub-agencies are the: National Archives of the Philippines40, National Historical Commission of the Philippines13, National Library of the Philippines39, National Museum of the Philippines45, Commission on the Filipino Language, and the Cultural Center of the Philippines. The information was obtained from the Wikipedia page “National Commission for Culture and Arts”.64 Visit its website: www.ncca.gov.ph

39The National Library of the Philippines is the official national library of the Philippines, with over 1.6 million pieces in its collections. It is notably called the home of the original copies of the defining works of Jose Rizal (Noli Me Tangere, El Filibusterismo and Mi Ultimo Adios). It was established in 1901 and is located in Rizal Park, at T. M. Kalaw Avenue, Ermita, Manila. The information was obtained from the Wikipedia page “National Library of the Philippines”.65 Visit its website: www.web.nlp.gov.ph

40The National Archives of the Philippines is an agency of the Philippines which is mandated to collect, store, preserve and make available, archival records of the government and other primary sources pertaining to the history and development of the country, as a result of the passage of Republic Act 9470 on May 21, 2007. It is the primary records management agency, tasked to formulate and implement the records schedule and vital records protection programs for the government. Its headquarters is in the National Library of the Philippines, in Rizal Park, at T. M. Kalaw Avenue, Ermita, Manila. The information was obtained from the Wikipedia page “National Archives of the Philippines”.66 Visit its website: www.nationalarchives.gov.ph

41The National Cultural Heritage Act is a law of the Republic of the Philippines which created the Philippine Registry of Cultural Property and took other steps to preserve historic buildings that are over 50 years old, signed into law on March 25, 2009, according to the Wikipedia page “National Cultural Heritage Act”.67

42The Cultural Properties of the Philippines refers to the cultural properties listed by the National Commission for Culture and Arts38, National Historical Commission of the Philippines13, and the National Museum of the Philippines15 through the Philippine Registry of Cultural Property (PRECUP), the official cultural property list of the country. The information was obtained from Wikipedia page “Cultural properties of the Philippines”.68

43www.primer.com.ph

44“National Cultural Treasure,” accessed October 16, 2018, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/National_Cultural_Treasure

45“National Museum of the Philippines,” accessed October 16, 2018, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/National_Museum_of_the_Philippines

46“World Heritage Site,” accessed October 16, 2018, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World_Heritage_Site

47Stucco refers to the cement-based and fine plaster used for coating wall surfaces or molding into architectural decorations. It hardens into a highly durable material that requires little maintenance and can be used to obtain different textures and finishes.69

48https://study.com/academy/lesson/italian-baroque-architecture-characteristics-examples.html

49An independent city is a type of city24 in the Philippines which is administratively and legally not subject to a provinceso it does not share its tax revenues with any province. The national government and its agencies serve such a city through sub-offices of the region23 it belongs to. It is subdivided into 2: highly urbanized city70 or independent component city71. The information was obtained from Wikipedia page “Cities of the Philippines”54

50A component city is a type of city24 in the Philippines which does not meet the requirements of a highly urbanized city70. It is under the jurisdiction of a province3. If such a city is located along the boundaries of 2 or more provinces, it shall be considered part of the province of which it used to be a municipality1. The information was obtained from Wikipedia page “Cities of the Philippines”54

51“Local government in the Philippines,” accessed January 29, 2019, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Local_government_in_the_Philippines

52“Barangay,” accessed January 29, 2019, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Barangay

53“Regions of the Philippines,” accessed January 29, 2019,  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Regions_of_the_Philippines

54“Cities of the Philippines,” accessed January 29, 2019,  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cities_of_the_Philippines

55Visayas is one of the 3 major geographical divisions of the Philippines. It covers 3 administrative regions: Central Visayas26, Eastern Visayas and Western Visayas. It consists of 6 major islands (Bohol, Cebu, Leyte, Negros, Panay and Samar), mostly surrounded by the Visayan Sea, and is composed of 16 provinces3, according to Wikipedia page “Visayas”.72 Visayas is located at the middle part of the country; the 2 other geographical divisions of the Philippines are Luzon (in the northern part) and Mindanao (in the southern part).

56“Nipa hut,” accessed October 16, 2018, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nipa_hut

57“Windowpane oyster,” accessed October 16, 2018, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Windowpane_oyster

58The Katipunan was the Philippine revolutionary secret society founded by anti-Spanish Filipinos in Manila in 1892 which aimed to gain independence from Spain through a revolution, according to the Wikipedia page “Katipunan”.73

59Pact of Biak-na-Bato was a truce between Spanish colonial Governor-General Fernando Primo de Rivera and the revolutionary leader Emilio Aguinaldo to end the Philippine Revolution34, signed on December 14, 1897, in the house of Pablo Tecson (a Philippine revolutionary captain who served as Brigadier General under General Gregorio del Pilar) in San Miguel, Bulacan. Aguinaldo and his fellow revolutionaries were given amnesty and monetary indemnity by the Spanish government, in return for which the revolutionary government would go on exile in Hong Kong. The information was obtained from Wikipedia page “Pact of Biak-na-Bato”.74

60The Spanish-American War was fought between Spain and the United States in 1898. Hostilities began in the aftermath of the internal explosion of USS Maine in Havana Harbor, in Cuba, leading to US intervention in the Cuban War of Independence. The Americans won and it resulted in the Treaty of Paris75, signed on December 10, 1898, came into effect on April 11, 1899, when the documents of ratification were exchanged, with Spain relinquishing all claims of sovereignty over and title to Cuba, and ceded Puerto Rico, Guam and the Philippines to the US. The cession of the Philippines involved a compensation of $20 million from the US to Spain. The information was obtained from Wikipedia pages “Spanish-American War”76 and “Treaty of Paris of 1898”77.

61The First Philippine Republic, or the Malolos Republic, was a nascent revolutionary government in the Philippines, established after the Philippine Revolution34 against the Spanish Empire (1896-1897) and the Spanish-American War60, and was the first constitutional republic in Asia, with a comprehensive constitution duly approved by a partially elected congress. It was formally established with the proclamation of the Malolos Constitution on January 21, 1899, in Malolos, Bulacan, and endured until the capture of President Emilio Aguinaldo by the American forces on March 23, 1901, in Palanan, Isabela. The information was obtained from Wikipedia page “First Philippine Republic”.78

62The Philippine-American War, the Philippine War, the Philippine Insurrection, or the Tagalog Insurgency, was an armed conflict between the First Philippine Republic61 and the USA that lasted from February 4, 1899 to July 2, 1902. The conflict arose when the former objected to the terms of the Treaty of Paris75, under which the US took possession of the Philippines from Spain, ending the short Spanish-American War60. The information was obtained from Wikipedia page “Philippine-American War”.79

63“Philippine Revolution,” accessed October 16, 2018, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Philippine_Revolution

64 “National Commission for Culture and Arts,” accessed October 16, 2018,https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/National_Commission_for_Culture_and-Arts

65“National Library of the Philippines,” accessed October 16, 2018, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/National_Library_of_the_Philippines

66“National Archives of the Philippines,” accessed October 16, 2018,https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/National_Archives_of_the_Philippines

67“National Cultural Heritage Act,” accessed October 16, 2018, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/National_Cultural_Heritage_Act

68“Cultural properties of the Philippines,” accessed October 16, 2018,https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cultural_properties_of_the_Philippines

69https://www.thebalancesmb.com/choose-right-stucco-mix-844655

70A highly urbanized city (HUC) is a type of city24 in the Philippines with a minimum population of 200,000 as certified by the Philippine Statistics Authority (PSA), and with the latest annual income of at least 50 million pesos, according to Wikipedia page “Cities of the Philippines”.54 There are currently 33 such cities in the Philippines (Foreign Seniors Ask: HOW MANY CITIES ARE THERE IN THE PHILIPPINES?).

71An independent component city (ICC) is a type of city24 in the Philippines which is autonomous from the province3 in which it is geographically located and has a charter that explicitly prohibits its residents to vote for provincial officials (unless allowed to do so). It does not meet the requirements of a highly urbanized city70. There are 5 such cities in the country: Cotabato, Dagupan, Naga, Ormoc, and Santiago. The information was obtained from Wikipedia page “Cities of the Philippines”54

72“Visayas,” accessed January 29, 2019, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Visayas

73“Katipunan,” accessed October 16, 2018,https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Katipunan

74“Pact of Biak-na-Bato,” accessed October 16, 2018, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pact_of_Biak-na-Bato

75The Treaty of Paris was an agreement, signed on December 10, 1898, that involved Spain relinquishing nearly all the remaining Spanish Empire, especially Cuba, and ceding Guam, Puerto Rico, and the Philippines to the US, thus ending the Spanish-American War60. It came into effect on April 11, 1899, when the documents of ratification were exchanged. The cessation of the Philippines involved a payment of US$20 million from the US to Spain. The information was obtained from the Wikipedia page “Treaty of Paris (1898)”.77

76“Spanish-American War,” accessed November 2, 2018, https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spanish_American_War

77“Treaty of Paris,” accessed November 2, 2018, https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Treaty_of-Paris.

78“First Philippine Republic,” accessed October 16, 2018, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/First_Philippine_Republic

79“Philippine-Amercian War,” accessed November 2, 2018, https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Philippine-American_War.

Now You Know: CANG-ISOK – SIQUIJOR’S OLDEST KNOWN HOUSE

Cang-Isok House is known as the oldest surviving house in the province1 of Siquijor2, in the Central Visayas3 Region (Region4 VII)5 of the Philippines. This historical attraction is located in coastal Barangay6 Libo, in the municipality7 of Enrique Villanueva8.

Cang-Isok can be loosely translated as “the house of Isok”, but no one can tell me who Isok was, or even exactly how old this house is.

This house was built by Mariano Tejano, a Spaniard, in the 1800s. This could be the reason why it is also called the Tejano House. Perhaps, the living descendants of the Tejano family can shed more light regarding the history of this house and relate it to the municipal and provincial tourism offices for proper documentation.

Cang-Isok_House-SiquijorCang‑Isok house, Enrique Villanueva, Franz Miko Verzon – Own work, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Siquijor#/media/File:Cang-Isok_House.jpg

As you can see in the picture, this house is all alone in the area, not well preserved, and has survived decades of exposure to the sea and changing weather.

It was built using molave9 for the walls and floors, and is located near the shoreline, on stilts to withstand high tides. The original roof was made of nipa10 but iron sheets have replaced some parts. The traditional wooden-capiz11 windows were used all over the house. Bamboo was also used to construct parts of this house.

The information was related to me during my trip to this island province1. Unfortunately, I was not able to stop and personally see this house, but the next time I do visit Siquijor, I will include this in my list of destinations.

I am calling on the government institutions responsible for the preservation of a precious structure like this house. Can it qualify as a National Cultural Treasure? If so, then this almost two-century house (if it were true that it was built in the 1800s) should be restored and preserved as soon as possible. The local government of Siquijor could officially communicate with the proper national authorities and agencies with supporting documents to substantiate their urgent claim for preservation.

You can read related posts about my Siquijor tour: TAKE A TARZAN-LIKE DIVE AT CAMBUGAHAY FALLS, SIQUIJOR!, SERENE AND SPONTANEOUS SALAGDOONG BEACH, SIQUIJORPALITON BEACH: THE LITTLE BORACAY OF SIQUIJOR, GET BEWITCHED AT HAPITANAN, SIQUIJOR, Now You Know – SIQUIJOR: ITS LEGEND, HISTORY, TRADITIONS, AND BELIEFS, ENCHANTING 400-YEAR-OLD BALETE TREE AND FISH SPA, SIQUIJOR, and SAN ISIDRO LABRADOR PARISH CHURCH AND CONVENT, SIQUIJOR.

Did you find this post informative? I would like to hear from you re the Cang-Isok house of Siquijor. Simply scroll and click “Leave a comment”. Do share this post with your Facebook friends, follow me by clicking on the bottom right corner of your device, and do not forget to like this post. Thank you.

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The following terms are defined for interested readers, especially non-Filipinos, those with “Senior-Moments”, and those too busy or lazy to Google such terms:

1A province is the primary administrative and political division in the Philippines. It is the second-level administrative sub-division of a region4. There are 81 provinces (called “lalawigan”) in the Philippines. Each province is governed by an elected legislature called the Sangguniang Panlalawigan and by an elected governor. Remember, a province in the Philippines is divided into cities12 and municipalities7 (or towns), which in turn, are divided into barangays6, formerly called barrios. The information was obtained from Wikipedia page “Provinces of the Philippines.”13 See a related post: Foreign Seniors Ask: WHAT ARE PROVINCES IN THE PHILIPPINES?

2Siquijor is an island province1 of the Philippines located in the Central Visayas3 Region (Region4 VII)5, blessed with white sand beaches, diving and snorkeling sites, waterfalls, century old churches, caves, unique culture, and hospitable Siquijodnons. It has 6 municipalities7: Enrique Villanueva, Larena, Lazi, Maria, San Juan, and Siquijor (the capital, and yes, it has the same name as the province). It is called the Mystical Island and Healing Paradise because even before the Spaniards discovered the island, the locals practiced mystical traditions and held festivals that focus on healing rituals where incantations are sung, while the old folks make potions out of herbs, roots, insects, and tree barks. The information was obtained from Wikipedia page “Siquijor.”14 It was dubbed as the “Marine Paradise of Central Visayas5” after it was proclaimed a marine reserve15 and tourist destination in 1978 by Proclamation No. 1810. In line with this, the Philippine Tourism Authority (PTA) was charged with converting it into a principal tourist zone.16

3Visayas is one of the 3 major geographical divisions of the Philippines. It covers 3 administrative regions4: Central Visayas5, Eastern Visayas and Western Visayas. It consists of 6 major islands (Bohol, Cebu, Leyte, Negros, Panay and Samar), mostly surrounded by the Visayan Sea, and is composed of 16 provinces1, according to Wikipedia page “Visayas”.17 Visayas is located at the middle part of the country; the 2 other geographical divisions of the Philippines are Luzon (in the northern part) and Mindanao (in the southern part).

4A region is the first-order administrative division in the Philippines. There are 17 regions in the Philippines, based on geographical, cultural and ethnological characteristics. It is further subdivided in provinces1, composed of cities12 and municipalities7 (or towns), which in turn, are divided into barangays6. The regions were initially identified in 1972, through Presidential Decree No. 1 of President Ferdinand Marcos. Since then, other regions have been created and some provinces have been “transferred” to another region. The information was obtained from Wikipedia page “Regions of the Philippines.”18 See a related post: Foreign Seniors Ask: WHAT ARE THE REGIONS OF THE PHILIPPINES?

5Central Visayas (Region VII) of the Philippines is a Philippine region4 located in the island group of Visayas3, with Cebu City as its regional center. It has 7 local government units19 (LGUs): Bohol, Cebu, Cebu City, Lapu-Lapu, Mandaue, Negros Oriental, and Siquijor2. The information was obtained from Wikipedia page “Regions of the Philippines.”18 See a related post: Foreign Seniors Ask: WHAT ARE THE REGIONS OF THE PHILIPPINES?

6A barangay in the Philippines is the smallest administrative division in the Philippines, headed by a barangay captain, aided by a Sangguniang Barangay (Barangay Council). It is the native Filipino term for a district or village. It was formerly called a barrio. In a metropolitan area, a barangay is an inner city neighborhood, a suburb, or a suburban neighborhood. The word barangay originated from the term “balangay”, a kind of boat used by a group of Austronesian people who migrated to the Philippines. A number of barangays grouped together is called a district. The information was obtained from Wikipedia page “Barangay.”20

7A municipality is a small, single urban administrative division, or local government unit (LGU)19, in the Philippines which has corporate status and powers of self-government or jurisdiction as granted by law. It is a unit under a province1, subdivided into barangays6, and is called town, or bayan. In the Philippines, a municipality is headed by a mayor, a vice mayor and members of the Sangguniang Bayan (legislative branch). It can enact local policies and laws, enforce them, and govern its jurisdictions. It can enter into contracts and other transactions through its elected and appointed officials, and can tax as well. It enforces all local and national laws. The information was obtained from Wikipedia page “Municipalities of the Philippines.”21

8Enrique Villanueva is a coastal municipality7 of the province1 of Siquijor2, in Central Visayas5. It was formerly a barangay6 of Larena (another municipality) and was called Talingting, after the local term for the abundant fish caught there, called Talingtingon. It is the smallest municipality of the province in terms of population, with 14 barangays. It was named after a former (1916-1925) governor of the province of Negros Oriental, Enrique Cayetano Teves Villanueva, who was responsible of upgrading it as a municipality. The information was obtained from the Wikipedia pages “Enrique Villanueva”22 and “Governor of Negros Oriental”23. Aside from Cang-Isok house, it is also known for the following destinations: Tulapos Marine Sanctuary, Our Lady of Mount Carmel Parish Church, and the Bitaug, Isa, Napayong and Olave Caves. Check out Lilibeth’s Pan de Bisaya.

9Molave is a large Philippine timber tree (Vitex parviflora), known for its dense, durable, yellow wood. It was once used extensively in furniture, boats, etc. as a valuable construction material, but due to habitat loss and overharvesting, it is now classified as endangered by the Philippine Department of Environment and Natural Resources. The information was obtained from Wikipedia page “Vitex parviflora.”24

10Nipa, nipa palm, mangrove palm, or Nypa fruticans, is a species of palm native to the coastlines and estuarine habitats of the Indian and Pacific Oceans. Its long feathery leaves are used as roof material for thatched houses or dwellings, as well as in many types of basketry and thatching. The information was obtained from Wikipedia page “Nypa fruticans.”25

11Capiz, or kapis, is the shell of the windowpane oyster (Placuna placenta), an edible, bivalve marine mollusk in the family of Placunidae. It is durable and translucent so it is used as a glass substitute for windows, and even decorative items like chandeliers and lampshades. The information was obtained from the Wikipedia page “Windowpane oyster”.26

12A city is the local government unit19 in the Philippines headed by a mayor elected by popular vote. A vice mayor serves as the presiding officer of the Sangguniang Panlungsod (city council), which acts as the city’s legislative body. The information was obtained from Wikipedia page “Cities of the Philippines.”27 See a related post: Foreign Seniors Ask: HOW MANY CITIES ARE THERE IN THE PHILIPPINES?

13“Provinces of the Philippines,” accessed July 17, 2018, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Provinces_of_the_Philippines

14“Siquijor,”accessed March 2, 2019, https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Siquijor

15A marine reserve is a type of marine protected area (MPA)28 that has legal protection against fishing or development, according to Wikipedia page “Marine reserve”.29  The removal or destruction of natural and cultural resources in prohibited. It is created for a variety of purposes: to protect the spawning grounds of certain species, and as an outdoor laboratory that allows scientists to compare the undisturbed areas of a reserve to those impacted by human activities.30

16https://dumagueteinfo.com/category/visayas/

17“Visayas,” accessed January 29, 2019,  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Visayas

18“Regions of the Philippines,” accessed July 17, 2018, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Regions_of_the_Philippines

19A local government unit (LGU) in the Philippines is divided into 3 levels: provinces1 and independent cities31; component cities32 and municipalities7; and, barangays6, according to Wikipedia page “Local government in the Philippines”.33

20“Barangay,” accessed January 29, 2019, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Barangay

21“Municipalities of the Philippines,” accessed January 29, 2019, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Municipalities_of_the_Philippines

22 “Enrique Villanueva,” accessed January 29, 2019, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Enrique_Villanueva

23“Governor of Negros Oriental,” accessed January 29, 2019, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Governor_of_Negros_Oriental

24“Vitex parviflora,” accessed March 8, 2019, https://en.wikivoyage.org/wiki/Vitex_parviflora

25“Nypa fruticans,” accessed March 8, 2019, https://en.wikivoyage.org/wiki/Nypa_fruticans

26“Windowpane oyster,” accessed October 16, 2018, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Windowpane_oyster

27“Cities of the Philippines,” accessed January 29, 2019, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cities_of_the_Philippines

28A marine protected area (MPA) is a protected area of estuaries, lakes, oceans or seas where a government has placed limits on human activity.30 The government restricts human activity for a conservation purpose, typically to protect natural or cultural resources. It can be a wildlife refuge to research facilities. It is protected by local, state, territorial, native, regional, national, or international authorities and differ substantially among and between nations, due to limitations on development, fishing practices, fishing seasons and catch limits, moorings and bans on removing disrupting marine life.34

29“Marine reserve,” accessed March 2, 2019, https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marine_reserve

30https://www.nationalgeographic.org/encyclopedia/marine-reserve/

31An independent city is a type of city12 in the Philippines which is administratively and legally not subject to a province1 so it does not share its tax revenues with any province. The national government and its agencies serve such a city through sub-offices of the region4 it belongs to. It is subdivided into 2: highly urbanized city35 or independent component city36. The information was obtained from Wikipedia page “Cities of the Philippines”27

32A component city is a type of city12 in the Philippines which does not meet the requirements of a highly urbanized city35. It is under the jurisdiction of a province1. If such a city is located along the boundaries of 2 or more provinces, it shall be considered part of the province of which it used to be a municipality7. The information was obtained from Wikipedia page “Cities of the Philippines”27

33“Local government in the Philippines,” accessed January 29, 2019, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Local_government_in_the_Philippines

34“Marine protected area,” accessed March 2, 2019, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marine_protected_area

35A highly urbanized city (HUC) is a type of city12 in the Philippines with a minimum population of 200,000 as certified by the Philippine Statistics Authority (PSA), and with the latest annual income of at least 50 million pesos, according to Wikipedia page “Cities of the Philippines”.27 There are currently 33 such cities in the Philippines (see link Foreign Seniors Ask: HOW MANY CITIES ARE THERE IN THE PHILIPPINES?).

36An independent component city (ICC) is a type of city12 in the Philippines which is autonomous from the province3 in which it is geographically located and has a charter that explicitly prohibits its residents to vote for provincial officials (unless allowed to do so). It does not meet the requirements of a highly urbanized city35. There are 5 such cities in the country: Cotabato, Dagupan, Naga, Ormoc, and Santiago. The information was obtained from Wikipedia page “Cities of the Philippines”27

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Now You Know: SIQUIJOR’S 6 ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCHES

Siquijor is an island province1 of the Philippines located in the Central Visayas2 Region (Region3 VII)4. It has 6 municipalities5: Enrique Villanueva, Larena, Lazi, Maria, San Juan, and Siquijor (the capital, and yes, it has the same name as the province). See related posts: (I will place links here)

The province1 has a long-time reputation as a place of magic, sorcery, and mystical traditions, way before the Spaniards arrived in the Philippines. The island then was the home of the Kingdom of Katugasan (from the word tugas, or Molave trees, that cover the hills, found all over the island). The people lived in caves, traded with the Chinese, and developed the art of traditional healing and witchcraft belief systems. Datu Kihod was their last reigning monarch, sometime during the 16th century. It is also well known for its festivals that focus on healing rituals.

In 1565, this island was discovered by Esteban Rodriguez and Juan Aguirre of the Legaspi6 expedition. Founded in 1783 under the administration of secular clergymen, Siquijor became the first municipality5 as well as the first parish to be established on the island. Siquijor was, from the beginning, administered by the Diocese of Cebu7. That is how the local people started to become Roman Catholics.

The first Augustinian Recollect8 priests arrived in Siquijor in 1794. Several years later, a priest of the same order founded the parishes of Larena (initially called Canoan), Lazi (formerly Tigbawan), San Juan (Makapilay), and Maria (Cang‑meniao). With the exception of Enrique Villanueva, the other five municipalities5 were established as parishes in 1877. No wonder the province has some of the oldest churches in the Philippines. To-date, ninety-five percent of the island’s residents are Roman Catholic.

This province1 showcases the unique culture of blending Catholicism with traditional religious practices – a major part of its people’s cultural heritage, identity and character. Siquijor is a mystical island and it also has 6 Roman Catholic churches9: Let us know more about these centuries-old churches:

1.Our Lady of Divine Providence10 Church (Santa Maria Church) – This is the parish church11 of the town of Maria, established in 1887, known for its famous replica of Santa Rita de Cascia12, or the Black Maria, as the locals call it.

Santa_Maria_Church-Maria-SiquijorSource: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Santa_Maria_Church_(Maria,_Siquijor).jpg – Franz Miko Verzon – own work

2. Our Lady of Mount Carmel Church (Mount Carmel Church) – This is the parish church11 of the town of Enrique Villanueva, along the island’s Circumferential Road, in honor of Our Lady of Mount Carmel13.

Mount_Carmel_Church-Enrique-Villanueva-SiquijorSource: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Mount_Carmel_Church_01.JPG – Lawrence Ruiz – own work

3. St. Augustine Parish (Macapilay Church) – This is the parish church11 of the town of San Juan, built in 1863, in honor of St. Augustine of Hippo14.

San_Agustin_Parish_Church-San Juan-SiquijorSource: https://commons.wikimeida.org/wiki/File:San_Agustin_Parish_Church.jpg – Franz Miko Verzon – own work

4. St. Francis of Assisi Church (Siquijor Church) – This is the parish church11 of the town of Siquijor, located very near the port, and established under the patronage of St. Francis de Assisi15 on February 1, 1783. A Philippine historical marker16 was issued on May 19, 1984.

St._Francis_of_Assisi_Church-Siquijor-SiquijorSource: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/St._Francis_of_Assisi_Church_(Siquijor,_Siquijor) – Franz Miko Verzon – own work

5. St. Isidore the Farmer17 Church (Lazi Church), or San Isidro Labrador Parish Church – This is the parish church11 of the town of Lazi, founded in 1857 by the Recollects8, and declared a National Historical Landmark18 by the National Historical Commission of the Philippines19 in 1984, and a National Cultural Treasure20 by the National Museum of the Philippines21 in 2001. It was also nominated to be part of the UNESCO World Heritage Sites22 Tentative List since 2006, under the collective group of Baroque23 Churches of the Philippines (Extension). See my post: (I will place a link here). It also has one of the largest convents in the Philippines, located at the opposite side of the street, facing the church. A Philippine historical marker16 was issued on May 19, 1984.

Lazi_Church-SiquijorSource: https://commons.wikimedia/wiki/File:Lazi_Church_01.JPG – Lawrence Ruiz – own work

6. Saint Vincent Ferrer Church (Larena Church) – This is the parish church11 of the town of Larena, erected on June 14, 1836, with the advocacy of San Vicente Ferrer24.

St._Vincent_Ferrer_Church_in_Larena-SiquijorSource: https://commons.wikimedia/wiki/File:St._Vincent_Ferrer_Church_in_Larena.JPG

The information was obtained from the Wikipedia page “Siquijor”25, “List of Historical Markers of the Philippines in Central Visayas”26 and “List of Cultural Properties of the Philippines in Central Visayas”27

You can read related posts about my Siquijor tour: SAN ISIDRO LABRADOR PARISH CHURCH AND CONVENT, SIQUIJOR, PALITON BEACH: THE LITTLE BORACAY OF SIQUIJOR, GET BEWITCHED AT HAPITANAN, SIQUIJOR, Now You Know – SIQUIJOR: ITS LEGEND, HISTORY, TRADITIONS, AND BELIEFS, ENCHANTING 400-YEAR-OLD BALETE TREE AND FISH SPA, SIQUIJOR, TAKE A TARZAN-LIKE DIVE AT CAMBUGAHAY FALLS, SIQUIJOR!, and SERENE AND SPONTANEOUS SALAGDOONG BEACH, SIQUIJOR.

Did you find this post informative? I would like to hear from you re the six Roman Catholic churches of Siquijor. Simply scroll and click “Leave a comment”. Do share this post with your Facebook friends, follow me by clicking on the bottom right corner of your device, and do not forget to like this post. Thank you.

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The following terms are defined for interested readers, especially non-Filipinos, those with “Senior-Moments”, and those too busy or lazy to Google such terms:

1A province is the primary administrative and political division in the Philippines. It is the second-level administrative sub-division of a region3. There are 81 provinces (called “lalawigan”) in the Philippines. Each province is governed by an elected legislature called the Sangguniang Panlalawigan and by an elected governor. Remember, a province in the Philippines is divided into cities28 and municipalities5 (or towns), which in turn, are divided into barangays29, formerly called barrios. The information was obtained from Wikipedia page “Provinces of the Philippines.”30 See a related post: Foreign Seniors Ask: WHAT ARE PROVINCES IN THE PHILIPPINES?

2Visayas is one of the 3 major geographical divisions of the Philippines. It covers 3 administrative regions3: Central Visayas4, Eastern Visayas and Western Visayas. It consists of 6 major islands (Bohol, Cebu, Leyte, Negros, Panay and Samar), mostly surrounded by the Visayan Sea, and is composed of 16 provinces1, according to Wikipedia page “Visayas”.31 Visayas is located at the middle part of the country; the 2 other geographical divisions of the Philippines are Luzon (in the northern part) and Mindanao (in the southern part).

3A region is the first-order administrative division in the Philippines. There are 17 regions in the Philippines, based on geographical, cultural and ethnological characteristics. It is further subdivided in provinces1, composed of cities28 and municipalities5 (or towns), which in turn, are divided into barangays29. The regions were initially identified in 1972, through Presidential Decree No. 1 of President Ferdinand Marcos. Since then, other regions have been created and some provinces have been “transferred” to another region. The information was obtained from Wikipedia page “Regions of the Philippines.”32 See a related post: Foreign Seniors Ask: WHAT ARE THE REGIONS OF THE PHILIPPINES?

4Central Visayas (Region VII) of the Philippines is a Philippine region3 located in the island group of Visayas2, with Cebu City as its regional center. It has 7 local government units33 (LGUs): Bohol, Cebu, Cebu City, Lapu-Lapu, Mandaue, Negros Oriental, and Siquijor. The information was obtained from Wikipedia page “Regions of the Philippines.”32

5A municipality is a small, single urban administrative division, or local government unit (LGU)33, in the Philippines which has corporate status and powers of self-government or jurisdiction as granted by law. It is a unit under a province1, subdivided into barangays29, and is called town, or bayan. In the Philippines, a municipality is headed by a mayor, a vice mayor and members of the Sangguniang Bayan (legislative branch). It can enact local policies and laws, enforce them, and govern its jurisdictions. It can enter into contracts and other transactions through its elected and appointed officials, and can tax as well. It enforces all local and national laws. The information was obtained from Wikipedia page “Municipalities of the Philippines.”34

6Miguel Lopez de Legazpi (1502-August 20, 1572), also known as El Adelantado and El Viejo (The Elder), was a Spanish navigator and governor who established the first Spanish settlement in the East Indies when his expedition crossed the Pacific Ocean, from the Viceroyalty of New Spain, in modern-day Mexico, and arrived in Cebu, in the Philippines. The information was obtained from Wikipedia page “Miguel Lopez de Legazpi.”35

7The Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Cebu is a Roman Rite36 archdiocese of the Roman Catholic Church in the Philippines, and one of the ecclesiastical provinces of the Roman Catholic Church in the country. It is composed of the entire civil province of Cebu. It is the Mother Church of the Philippines, established as a diocese on August 14, 1595, and as an archdiocese on April 28, 1934. The jurisdiction, Cebu, is considered as the fount of Christianity in the Far East. The seat of the archdiocese is the Metropolitan Cathedral and Parish of Saint Vitalis and of the Immaculate Conception, more commonly known as the Cebu Metropolitan Cathedral. The information was obtained from Wikipedia page “Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Cebu.”37

8The Recollects were a French reform branch of the Order of Friars Minor created at the end of the 15th century, commonly known today as the Franciscans, best known for their presence as missionaries in various parts of the world. They wore gray habits and pointed hoods, took vows of poverty, and devoted their lives to prayer, penance, and spiritual reflection. In 1897, Pope Leo XIII officially dissolved the Recollects order and integrated it as a part of the Franciscan order, officially changing their name to Friars Minor. The information was obtained from the Wikipedia page “Recollects”.38

9https://www.tripzilla.ph/siquijor-visita-iglesia-guide/102

10Our Lady of Divine Providence is a title of the Blessed Virgin Mary, Mother of Jesus, often traced to Her intervention and foresight for Jesus’ first miracle, turning water to wine at the wedding in Cana, to avoid an embarrassing situation for the newlywed couple. She is identified as Queen of the Home, with Her feast day celebrated on November 19, and devotion to Her originated in Italy. The information was obtained from the Wikipedia page “Our Lady of Divine Providence”.39

11A parish church, or parochial church, in Christianity, is the church which acts as the religious center of a parish in many parts of the world. The parish church, especially in rural areas, may play a significant role in community activities, often allowing its premises to be used for non-religious community events. The information was obtained from the Wikipedia page “Parish church”.40

12Saint Rita of Cascia, born Margherita Lotti (1381 – 22 May 1457), was an Italian widow and Augustinian nun venerated as a saint in the Roman Catholic Church. She joined the Augustinian community of religious sisters after her abusive husband was murdered. There, she was known for the efficacy of her prayers, often portrayed with a bleeding wound on her forehead, understood to indicate a partial stigmata, with various miracles attributed to her intercession. She was canonized on May 24, 1900 by Pope Leo XIII, and her feast day is celebrated on May 22. She was bestowed the title of Patroness of Impossible Causes, and also came to be known as the patroness of abused wives and heartbroken women. The information was obtained from the Wikipedia page “Saint Rita of Cascia”.41

13Our Lady of Mount Carmel is the title given to the Blessed Virgin Mary in Her role as Patroness of the Carmelite Order since the first Christian hermits lived on Mount Carmel in the Holy Land during the late 12th and early to mid-13th century. Readers, you can pray to Her for protection from harmful and dangerous situations, and deliverance of souls from Purgatory. The information was obtained from the Wikipedia page “Our Lady of Mount Carmel”.42

14Saint Augustine of Hippo (13 November 354 – 23 August 430) was a Roman African, early Christian theologian and philosopher from Numidia (a Roman province on the North African coast), whose writings influenced the development of Western Christianity and Western philosophy. He was Bishop of Hippo Regius (the ancient name of the modern city of Annaba, in Algeria) in North Africa and is viewed as one of the most important Church fathers in Western Christianity for his writings. He is the Patron of Augustinians, and is the Patron Saint for brewers, printers, theologians, and the alleviation of sore eyes. The information was obtained from the Wikipedia page “Saint Augustine of Hippo”.43

15Saint Francis of Assisi (1181/1182 – 3 October 1226), informally called Francesco, was an Italian Catholic friar, deacon and preacher. He founded the men’s Order of Friars Minor, the women’s Order of Saint Claire, the Third Order of Saint Francis, and the Custody of the Holy Land. He was canonized on July 16, 1228, and designated as the Patron Saint of Italy, and later became associated with the patronage of animals and the natural environment. The information was obtained from the Wikipedia page “Saint Francis of Assisi”.44

16A historical marker, commemorative plaque, historical plaque, or simply plaque, is a plate of metal, ceramic, stone, wood, or other material, typically attached to a wall, stone, or other vertical surface, and bearing  text or an image in relief, or both, to commemorate one or more persons, an event, a former use of the place, or some other thing. Many modern plaques are used to associate the location where the plaque is installed with the person, event, or item commemorated as a place worthy of visit. The information was obtained from the Wikipedia page “Commemorative plaque”.45

17Saint Isidore the Farm Laborer, or Isidore the Farmer (c. 1070 – 15 May 1130/1142) was a Spanish farm worker known for his piety towards the poor and animals. His feast day is celebrated on May 15, and is the Patron Saint of farmers, agriculture and day laborers. The information was obtained from the Wikipedia page “Saint Isidore the Farm Laborer”.46

18A National Historical Landmark of the Philippines is a place or an object that is associated with an event, achievement, characteristics or modification that presents a turning point or stage in history. The information was obtained from the Wikipedia page “Category: National Historical Landmarks of the Philippines”.47

19The National Historical Commission of the Philippines (NHCP) is a government agency of the Philippines which promotes Philippine history and cultural heritage through research, dissemination, conservation, sites management, and heraldry works, thereby inculcating awareness and appreciation of the noble deeds and ideals of our heroes and other illustrious Filipinos, instilling pride in the Filipino people, and rekindling the Filipino spirit through the lessons of history. The information was obtained from the Wikipedia page “National Historical Commission of the Philippines”.48

20A National Cultural Treasure (NCT) of the Philippines is a tangible (movable and immovable) or intangible heritage property declared by the National Commission for Culture and Arts49 and other cultural agencies such as the National Museum of the Philippines21, National Library of the Philippines50, and National Archives of the Philippines51. Such declarations are authorized under the National Cultural Heritage Act of 200952 and recognized within the Cultural Properties of the Philippines53 by the Philippine government. The title of NCT is the highest designation given to a “unique cultural property found locally, possessing outstanding historical, cultural, artistic and/or scientific value which is highly significant and important to the country and nation”.54 The information was obtained from the Wikipedia page “National Cultural Treasure”.55

21The National Museum of the Philippines is a government institution in the Philippines which serves as the educational, scientific and cultural institution in preserving the various permanent national collections featuring the ethnographic, anthropological, archaeological and visual artistry of the Philippines. It was formed on October 29, 1901, with headquarters in Padre Burgos Avenue, in Rizal Park, Ermita, Manila. Since 1998, it has been the regulatory and enforcement agency of the national government in restoring and safeguarding important cultural properties, sites and reservations throughout the Philippines. It is under the Department of Education and the National Commission for Culture and Arts49. The information was obtained from the Wikipedia page “National Museum of the Philippines”.56 Visit its website: www.nationalmuseum.gov.ph

22A UNESCO World Heritage Site (WHS) is a unique landmark, or geographically and historically identifiable place which is selected by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) as having cultural, historical, scientific, physical or other form of significance, and is legally protected by international treaties. Sites are demarcated by UNESCO as protected zones. The list is maintained by the International World Heritage Program administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 state parties which are elected by the General Assembly. Under certain conditions, listed sites can obtain funds from the World Heritage Fund. The information was obtained from the Wikipedia page “World Heritage Site”.57

23Baroque architecture began in Rome, Italy, in the late 16th century, which conveys grandeur and drama, most often used in palaces and churches. It includes curving forms, oval shapes, and a combination of concave and convex forms that make walls seem to undulate, or appear wavy, with a strong sense of motion. It groups things together like columns and decorative flourishes on building surfaces. Architectural elements are repeated across a surface. It uses distortion to make figures elongated, broken, or manipulated in some manner to make them stand out. Buildings have columns, sometimes topped with capitals and large volutes, scroll, or spiral forms. Sculptural wall elements will often project from the surface which is full of forms to increase the interplay of light and shadow across them. Inside, Baroque structures will often have ceilings painted in bright colors, made to fool one’s eye into believing one is looking at the sky. Buildings also have very rich surface treatments, including interiors with stucco58, various colored marbles, and gold gilt or thin sheets of gold applied to surfaces. Most Baroque churches have vaulted ceilings, supported by a series of interconnected arches.59

24Saint Vincent Ferrer (23 January 1350 – 5 April 1419) was a Valencian Dominican friar who gained acclaim as a missionary and logician. He is the Patron Saint of builders, prisoners, construction workers, plumbers, fishermen, and Spanish orphanages. He is honored as a saint of the Roman Catholic Church and other churches of Catholic traditions, like the Iglesia Filipina Independiente. The information was obtained from the Wikipedia page “Vincent Ferrer”.60

25“Siquijor,” accessed March 8, 2019, https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Siquijor

26“List of historical markers of the Philippines in Central Visayas”, accessed March 29, 2019, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_historical_markers_of_the_Philippines_in_Central_Visayas

27“List of Cultural Properties of the Philippines in Central Visayas”, accessed March 29, 2019, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Cultural_Properties_of_the_Philippines_in_Central_Visayas

28A city is the local government unit33 in the Philippines headed by a mayor elected by popular vote. A vice mayor serves as the presiding officer of the Sangguniang Panlungsod (city council), which acts as the city’s legislative body. The information was obtained from Wikipedia page “Cities of the Philippines.”61

29A barangay in the Philippines is the smallest administrative division in the Philippines, headed by a barangay captain, aided by a Sangguniang Barangay (Barangay Council). It is the native Filipino term for a district or village. It was formerly called a barrio. In a metropolitan area, a barangay is an inner city neighborhood, a suburb, or a suburban neighborhood. The word barangay originated from the term “balangay”, a kind of boat used by a group of Austronesian people who migrated to the Philippines. A number of barangays grouped together is called a district. The information was obtained from Wikipedia page “Barangay.”62

30“Provinces of the Philippines,” accessed July 17, 2018,  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Provinces_of_the_Philippines

31“Visayas,” accessed January 29, 2019, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Visayas

32“Regions of the Philippines,” accessed January 29, 2019, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Regions_of_the_Philippines

33A local government unit (LGU) in the Philippines is divided into 3 levels: provinces1 and independent cities63; component cities64 and municipalities5; and, barangays29, according to Wikipedia page “Local government in the Philippines”.65

34“Municipalities of the Philippines,” accessed January 29, 2019, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Municipalities_of_the_Philippines

35“Miguel Lopez de Legazpi,” accessed January 29, 2019, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Miguel_Lopez_de_Legazpi

36The Roman rite is the most widespread liturgical rite in the Catholic Church as well as the most popular and widespread Rite in all of Christendom. It has been adapted over the centuries and the history of its Eucharistic liturgy can be divided into 3 stages: the Pre-Tridentine Mass, Tridentine Mass, and the Mass of Paul VI (the current form of the Mass in the Catholic Church). The information was obtained from Wikipedia page “Roman rite.”66

37“Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Cebu,” accessed January 29, 2019, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roman_Catholic_Archdiocese_of_Cebu

38“Recollects,” accessed January 29, 2019, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Recollects

39“Our Lady of Divine Providence,” accessed January 29, 2019, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Our_Lady_of_Divine_Providence

40“Parish church,” accessed January 29, 2019, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Parish_church

41“Saint Rita of Cascia,” accessed January 29, 2019, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saint_Rita_of_Cascia

42“Our Lady of Mount Carmel,” accessed January 29, 2019, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Our_Lady_of_Mount_Carmel

43“Saint Augustine of Hippo,” accessed January 29, 2019, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saint_Augustine_of_Hippo

44“Saint Francis of Assisi,” accessed January 29, 2019, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saint_Francis_of_Assisi

45“Commemorative plaque,” accessed January 29, 2019, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Commemorative_plaque

46“Saint Isidore the Farm Laborer,” accessed January 29, 2019, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saint_Isidore_the_Farm_Laborer

47“Category: National Historical Landmarks of the Philippines,” accessed October 16, 2018, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Category:_National_Historical_Landmarks_of_the_Philippines

48“National Historical Commission of the Philippines,” accessed October 16, 2018, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/National_Historical_Commission_of_the_Philippines

49“National Commission for Culture and Arts,” accessed October 16, 2018,https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/National_Commission_for_Culture_and_Arts

50“National Library of the Philippines,” accessed October 16, 2018, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/National_Library_of_the_Philippines

51“National Archives of the Philippines,” accessed October 16, 2018,https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/National_Archives_of_the_Philippines

52“National Cultural Heritage Act,” accessed October 16, 2018, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/National_Cultural_Heritage_Act

53“Cultural properties of the Philippines,” accessed October 16, 2018,https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cultural_properties_of_the_Philippines

54www.primer.com.ph

55“National Cultural Treasure,” accessed October 16, 2018, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/National_Cultural_Treasure

56“National Museum of the Philippines,” accessed October 16, 2018, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/National_Museum_of_the_Philippines

57“World Heritage Site,” accessed October 16, 2018, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World_Heritage_Site

58Stucco refers to the cement-based and fine plaster used for coating wall surfaces or molding into architectural decorations. It hardens into a highly durable material that requires little maintenance and can be used to obtain different textures and finishes.67

59https://study.com/academy/lesson/italian-baroque-architecture-characteristics-examples.html

60“Vincent Ferrer,” accessed January 29, 2019, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vincent_Ferrer

61“Cities of the Philippines,” accessed January 29, 2019, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cities_of_the_Philippines

62“Barangay,” accessed January 29, 2019, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Barangay

63An independent city is a type of city28 in the Philippines which is administratively and legally not subject to a province1 so it does not share its tax revenues with any province. The national government and its agencies serve such a city through sub-offices of the region3 it belongs to. It is subdivided into 2: highly urbanized city68 or independent component city69. The information was obtained from Wikipedia page “Cities of the Philippines”61

64A component city is a type of city28 in the Philippines which does not meet the requirements of a highly urbanized city68. It is under the jurisdiction of a province1. If such a city is located along the boundaries of 2 or more provinces, it shall be considered part of the province of which it used to be a municipality5. The information was obtained from Wikipedia page “Cities of the Philippines”61

65“Local government in the Philippines,” accessed January 29, 2019, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Local_government_in_the_Philippines

66“Roman rite,” accessed January 29, 2019, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roman_rite

67https://www.thebalancesmb.com/choose-right-stucco-mix-844655

68A highly urbanized city (HUC) is a type of city28 in the Philippines with a minimum population of 200,000 as certified by the Philippine Statistics Authority (PSA), and with the latest annual income of at least 50 million pesos, according to Wikipedia page “Cities of the Philippines”.61 There are currently 33 such cities in the Philippines (see link – Foreign Seniors Ask: HOW MANY CITIES ARE THERE IN THE PHILIPPINES?).

69An independent component city (ICC) is a type of city28 in the Philippines which is autonomous from the province1 in which it is geographically located and has a charter that explicitly prohibits its residents to vote for provincial officials (unless allowed to do so). It does not meet the requirements of a highly urbanized city68. There are 5 such cities in the country: Cotabato, Dagupan, Naga, Ormoc, and Santiago. The information was obtained from Wikipedia page “Cities of the Philippines”61

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Now You Know: THE SIX MUNICIPALITIES OF SIQUIJOR

Siquijor is an island province1 of the Philippines located in the Central Visayas2 Region (Region3 VII)4, Philippines. Geographically, Cebu is to the north, Negros to the west, Bohol to the northeast, Camiguin to the east, and to the south, across the Bohol Sea, is Mindanao. The people are called Siquijodnons. See a related post: ____________________________

Ph_map_siquijorSource: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Siquijor#/media/File:Ph_map_siquijor.png

This province has 6 municipalities5: Enrique Villanueva, Larena, Lazi, Maria, San Juan, and Siquijor (the capital, and yes, it is also called Siquijor).  Let Tita S briefly tell you about each of them:

ENRIQUE VILLANUEVA

 Enrique Villanueva is a coastal municipality5 in the northeastern part of Siquijor, in the Central Visayas4. It was adorned with mangroves when we passed along the Circumferential Road. The town of Larena is located to the west and Maria to the south.

Ph_locator_siquijor_enrique_villanuevaSource: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Maps_of_Siquijor#/media/File:Ph_locator_siquijor_enrique_villanueva.png – Mike Gonzalez (TheCafe) – English Wikipedia

It was formerly a barangay6 of Larena, and was called Talingting, after the local term for the abundant fish caught there, called Talingtingon.

It has with 14 barangays6 and a land area of 28.6 square kilometers, making it the smallest municipality5 of the province1 both in terms of size, and of population. The municipality of Maria is located to its south.

This municipality5 was named after a former governor of the province1 of Negros Oriental, Enrique Cayetano Teves Villanueva, who served during the era of the American Occupation of the Philippines, (i.e., his term of office was from 1916 to 1925, when Siquijor was still part of the said province), and was responsible for upgrading it as a municipality, according to Wikipedia page “Governor of Negros Oriental”.7

Enrique Villanueva is known for the following destinations: Tulapos Marine Sanctuary – go snorkeling or diving in this 14-hectare marine sanctuary, established in 1986, complete with white sand beach, coral reefs and mangroves; Our Lady of Mount Carmel Parish Church; the Bitaug, Isa, Napayong and Olave Caves – go spelunking in these caves; and, Cang-Isok House – the oldest surviving house in Siquijor province.

You can also have a snack at Lilibeth’s Pan de Bisaya, a simple roadside bakery at Barangay6 Bino-Ongan, and try its signature Pan de Bisaya, a bun filled with bukayo (sweetened grated coconut), best enjoyed with hot coffee. You can also try their other products: bibingka (rice cake), ensaymada (sweet, spiral-shaped pastry), salbaro (coconut-flavored biscuit), and other baked items. Contact 0926-2019485.

LARENA

Ph_locator_siquijor_larenaSource: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Maps_of_Siquijor#/media/File:Ph_locator_siquijor_larena.png – Mike Gonzalez (TheCafe) – English Wikipedia

Larena is a municipality5 of Siquijor with 23 barangays. It is located in the northwestern tip of the province. Enrique Villanueva is to the east, Siquijor is to the southwest, Maria is to the southeast, and Lazi is to the south. Formerly called Canoan, it was made the head town for the whole island of Siquijor during the Spanish period, and has since maintained this position as the hub of business activities in the province1, with its port, commercial banks, and other commercial establishments, according to the Wikipedia page “Larena”.8

Governor Demetrio Larena, the first Filipino governor of Negros Oriental and Siquijor (term: 1901-1905), changed the municipality’s name from Canoan to Larena, making it his namesake. This change was duly approved by the Philippine legislature, according to the Wikipedia page “Demetrio Larena”9 and “Larena”8.

When Siquijor became an independent province1 on September 17, 1971 by RA 6396, the municipality5 of Larena was chosen as its capital. A year after, the capital was transferred to Siquijor town, by Proclamation 1975.

You can visit the following destinations in Larena: the Siquijor Butterfly Sanctuary, Saint Vincent Ferrer Parish Church, Cangbangag Falls, Sandugan Beach and Siquijor State College. The Canoan Festival, held every last week of April, celebrates the humble beginnings of this municipality5.

LAZI8

Lazi, formerly called Tigbawan, is a coastal municipality5 in the island province1 of Siquijor, with 18 barangays6. It is located in the mid-southern part of the island, with the town of Larena to the north, Siquijor to the northwest, San Juan to the southwest, and Maria to the east. This town was founded in 1857.

Ph_locator_siquijor_laziSource: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Maps_of_Siquijor#/media/File:Ph_locator_siquijor_lazi.png – Mike Gonzalez (TheCafe) – English Wikipedia

It is known for the following attractions: the 400-year-old enchanting balete tree with fish spa (see related post: ENCHANTING 400-YEAR-OLD BALETE TREE AND FISH SPA, SIQUIJOR), Baeran Cave, Banahaw Cave, Cabangcalan Cave, Cadamel Cave, Cambugahay Falls (see a related post: TAKE A TARZAN-LIKE DIVE AT CAMBUGAHAY FALLS, SIQUIJOR!), Cantino Cave, Catiray Cave, Catugasan Cave, Dalili Cave, Hapitanan (see a related post: GET BEWITCHED AT HAPITANAN, SIQUIJOR), Ilihan Cave with Antique Coffin, Kagusuan Beach, Kalumbuyan Cave, Kawasan Cave, Lahong Cave, Lazi Convent and Lazi Church or San Isidro Labrador Parish Church (see a related post: SAN ISIDRO LABRADOR PARISH CHURCH AND CONVENT, SIQUIJOR), Libo Cave, Sambolawan Cave, Tagmanocan Cave, Talayong Cave, and Talisay Cave.

The information was obtained from the Wikipedia page “Lazi, Siquijor”10, “Siquijor”11, and http://siquijor.islandsphilippines.com/siquijor_caves.php. Visit this site for more information: http://www.phtourguide.com/municipality-of-lazi-in-siquijor/

MARIA

 Maria, formerly called Cang-meniao, is an eastern and coastal municipality5 of the island province1 of Siquijor, with 22 barangays6. The town of Larena is to the northwest, Enrique Villanueva is to the northeast, and Lazi to the southwest.

Ph_locator_siquijor_mariaSource: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Maps_of_Siquijor#/media/File:Ph_locator_siquijor_maria.png – Mike Gonzalez (TheCafe) – English Wikipedia

This town is known for Bacong Beach, Kagusuan Beach, Kanglayawis Cave, Lapac Cave, Lugawan Cave, Mainit Cave, Marianico Cave, Olang Art Park, Our Lady of Divine Providence Parish Church, and Salagdoong Beach (see a related post: SERENE AND SPONTANEOUS SALAGDOONG BEACH, SIQUIJOR), Salagdoong Forest Reserve, and Salagdoong Cave.

SAN JUAN

San Juan is a town of Siquijor with 15 barangays6. It was called Makalipay during the Spanish times till the mid-19th century, in 1863.

This town is located in the southwestern part of the island. Siquijor is to the northeast and Lazi is to the southeast.

Ph_locator_siquijor_san_juanSource: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Maps_of_Siquijor#/media/File:Ph_locator_siquijor_san_juan.png – Mike Gonzalez (TheCafe) – English Wikipedia

You can visit the following destinations: Bulalakaw Forest Reservation, Cambasia Cave, Canghaling Cave, Cansilla Cave, Capilay Spring Park, Lapac Cave, Lugnason Falls, Marelle’s Underwater World Museum, Napo Cave, Paliton Beach (see a related post: PALITON BEACH: THE LITTLE BORACAY OF SIQUIJOR), and St. Augustine Parish Church, San Juan Beach, Solangon Beach, Tubod Beach and Marine Sanctuary.

SIQUIJOR

 Siquijor is a municipality5 located on the western part of the island of Siquijor, with 15 barangays6. Larena is to the northwest, San Juan is to the southwest, and Lazi is to the southeast.

Ph_locator_siquijor_siquijorSource: https://commons.wsikimedia.org/wiki/Maps_of-Siquijor#/media/File:Ph_locator_siquijor_siquijor.png – Mike Gonzalez (TheCafe) – English Wikipedia

This town is known for: Ambakag Baki Cave; Bandilaan Cave and Mountain View Park, Nature Centre and Nature Park; Boljo Cave; Canghunoghunog Cave; Cangmatnog Cave; Cangmohao Cave, Cantabon Cave (said to be the most visited cave in the island); Dacanay Cave; Eugenia Cave; Guiwahon Spring Park; Kanheron Ranch Museum; Lunas Cave; St. Francis of Assisi Catholic Church with Siquijor Belltower, Sam-ang Cave; San Antonio Cave; Siquijor Beach, Tamsis Cave, Tulawog Cave.

I also got information from people I talked with during my Siquijor tour.

I expected a lot of beaches since this province is an island, but I was surprised with the number of caves – 32! Gosh, this island can also be called the Spelunking Island of the Philippines! I hope they can fully explore each cave and certify them safe for tourists, develop them as tourist attractions, train professional cave tour guides, and market this interesting activity in the island!

I just realized that there are so many things to do and see in this island so you can easily stay for six days, one day per town! This certainly motivates me to return to this province. Have you ever been to Siquijor? Well, if you answered negatively, what are you waiting for? Read related posts about my Siquijor tour:

Did you find this post informative? I would like to hear from you re Siquijor’s municipalities5. Simply scroll and click “Leave a comment”. Do share this post with your Facebook friends, follow me by clicking on the bottom right corner of your device, and do not forget to like this post. Thank you.

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The following terms are defined for interested readers, especially non-Filipinos, those with “Senior-Moments”, and those too busy or lazy to Google such terms:

1A province is the primary administrative and political division in the Philippines. It is the second-level administrative sub-division of a region3. There are 81 provinces (called “lalawigan”) in the Philippines. Each province is governed by an elected legislature called the Sangguniang Panlalawigan and by an elected governor. Remember, a province in the Philippines is divided into cities12 and municipalities5 (or towns), which in turn, are divided into barangays6, formerly called barrios. The information was obtained from Wikipedia page “Provinces of the Philippines.”13 See a related post: Foreign Seniors Ask: WHAT ARE PROVINCES IN THE PHILIPPINES?

2Visayas is one of the 3 major geographical divisions of the Philippines. It covers 3 administrative regions3: Central Visayas4, Eastern Visayas and Western Visayas. It consists of 6 major islands (Bohol, Cebu, Leyte, Negros, Panay and Samar), mostly surrounded by the Visayan Sea, and is composed of 16 provinces1, according to Wikipedia page “Visayas”.14 Visayas is located at the middle part of the country; the 2 other geographical divisions of the Philippines are Luzon (in the northern part) and Mindanao (in the southern part).

3A region is the first-order administrative division in the Philippines. There are 17 regions in the Philippines, based on geographical, cultural and ethnological characteristics. It is further subdivided in provinces1, composed of cities12 and municipalities5 (or towns), which in turn, are divided into barangays6. The regions were initially identified in 1972, through Presidential Decree No. 1 of President Ferdinand Marcos. Since then, other regions have been created and some provinces have been “transferred” to another region. The information was obtained from Wikipedia page “Regions of the Philippines.”15 See a related post: Foreign Seniors Ask: WHAT ARE THE REGIONS OF THE PHILIPPINES?

4Central Visayas (Region VII) of the Philippines is a Philippine region3 located in the island group of Visayas2, with Cebu City as its regional center. It has 7 local government units16 (LGUs): Bohol, Cebu, Cebu City, Lapu-Lapu, Mandaue, Negros Oriental, and Siquijor. The information was obtained from Wikipedia page “Regions of the Philippines.”15

5A municipality is a small, single urban administrative division, or local government unit (LGU)16, in the Philippines which has corporate status and powers of self-government or jurisdiction as granted by law. It is a unit under a province1, subdivided into barangays6, and is called town, or bayan. In the Philippines, a municipality is headed by a mayor, a vice mayor and members of the Sangguniang Bayan (legislative branch). It can enact local policies and laws, enforce them, and govern its jurisdictions. It can enter into contracts and other transactions through its elected and appointed officials, and can tax as well. It enforces all local and national laws. The information was obtained from Wikipedia page “Municipalities of the Philippines.”17

6A barangay in the Philippines is the smallest administrative division in the Philippines, headed by a barangay captain, aided by a Sangguniang Barangay (Barangay Council). It is the native Filipino term for a district or village. It was formerly called a barrio. In a metropolitan area, a barangay is an inner city neighborhood, a suburb, or a suburban neighborhood. The word barangay originated from the term “balangay”, a kind of boat used by a group of Austronesian people who migrated to the Philippines. A number of barangays grouped together is called a district. The information was obtained from Wikipedia page “Barangay.”18

7https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Governor_of_Negros_Oriental

8“Larena,” accessed March 2, 2019, https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Larena

9“Demetrio Larena,” accessed March 2, 2019, https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Demetrio_Larena

10“Lazi, Siquijor,” accessed March 2, 2019, https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lazi,_Siquijor

11“Siquijor,” accessed March 2, 2019, https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Siquijor

12A city in the Philippines is the local government unit16 in the Philippines headed by a mayor elected by popular vote. A vice mayor serves as the presiding officer of the Sangguniang Panlungsod (city council), which serves as the city’s legislative body. Congress is the only legislative entity that can incorporate a city in the country. Upon receiving its charter, a city also receives a full complement of executive departments to best serve its constituents. There are 145 cities, as of 2016, in the country. All these were obtained from Wikipedia page “Cities of the Philippines.”19 See a related post: Foreign Seniors Ask: HOW MANY CITIES ARE THERE IN THE PHILIPPINES?

13“Provinces of the Philippines,” accessed January 29, 2019, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Provinces_of_the_Philippines

14“Visayas,” accessed January 29, 2019, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Visayas

15“Regions of the Philippines,” accessed January 29, 2019, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Regions_of_the_Philippines

16A local government unit (LGU) in the Philippines is divided into 3 levels: provinces1 and independent cities20; component cities21 and municipalities5; and, barangays6, according to Wikipedia page “Local government in the Philippines”22

17“Municipalities of the Philippines,” accessed January 29, 2019, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Municipalities_of_the_Philippines

18“Barangay,” accessed January 29, 2019, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Barangay

19“Cities of the Philippines,” accessed January 29, 2019, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cities_of_the_Philippines

20An independent city is a type of city12 in the Philippines which is administratively and legally not subject to a province1 so it does not share its tax revenues with any province. The national government and its agencies serve such a city through sub-offices of the region3 it belongs to. It is subdivided into 2: highly urbanized city23 or independent component city24. The information was obtained from Wikipedia page “Cities of the Philippines”19

21A component city is a type of city12 in the Philippines which does not meet the requirements of a highly urbanized city23. It is under the jurisdiction of a province1. If such a city is located along the boundaries of 2 or more provinces, it shall be considered part of the province of which it used to be a municipality5. The information was obtained from Wikipedia page “Cities of the Philippines”19

22“Local government in the Philippines,” accessed January 29, 2019, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Local_government_in_the_Philippines

23A highly urbanized city (HUC) is a type of city12 in the Philippines with a minimum population of 200,000 as certified by the Philippine Statistics Authority (PSA), and with the latest annual income of at least 50 million pesos, according to Wikipedia page “Cities of the Philippines”.19 There are currently 33 such cities in the Philippines (see link: Foreign Seniors Ask: HOW MANY CITIES ARE THERE IN THE PHILIPPINES?).

24An independent component city (ICC) is a type of city12 in the Philippines which is autonomous from the province1 in which it is geographically located and has a charter that explicitly prohibits its residents to vote for provincial officials (unless allowed to do so). It does not meet the requirements of a highly urbanized city23. There are 5 such cities in the country: Cotabato, Dagupan, Naga, Ormoc, and Santiago. The information was obtained from Wikipedia page “Cities of the Philippines”19

Craving for Cheese? Go to Melt Grilled Cheesery

LOCATION: Molito Lifestyle Center, Madrigal Avenue corner Commerce Avenue, Alabang, Muntinlupa City

I was craving for cheese and it so happened that a relative of mine drove me and my group to Molito1 in Alabang, on a hot, humid and early evening of May 2019. We were walking leisurely in this spacious and relaxing commercial complex while appreciating the landscape as well as the numerous dining and retail outlets all around. See its Facebook account: https://www.facebook.com/MolitoAlabangPH/

BeFunky-collage-Molito-okThere are lots of trees and the well-maintained open space was so refreshing. It was early evening and when it became dark, the lights all around were lit and so beautiful.

At one point, a niece told me that they previously dined at Melt Grilled Cheesery and enjoyed their orders. I thought, great! I can satisfy my craving and it would be interesting to see what cheese dishes they will offer other than the usual cheese sandwich and fondue!

Melt Grilled Cheesery is a cozy, gourmet restaurant that specializes in all things cheese, from appetizers, soups, salads, fondues, pizzas, grilled cheese sandwiches and dishes, pastas and desserts. It also offers hot and cold, alcoholic and non-alcoholic beverages to complement your food orders.

Chef James Torres, the owner of Melt, was inspired by his wife Chessie’s love for cheese.

Here is its menu:

BeFunky-collage-menu-cover-ok

DRINKSIMG_5055-drinks-ok

APPETIZERS, SOUPS, SALADS, MELTING POT FONDUEIMG_5056-appetizers-etc-ok

GRILLED CHEESEIMG_5057-Grilled-Cheese-ok

PIZZAS AND PASTASIMG_5058-pizza-pastas-ok

ENTRÉEIMG_5059-entree-ok

CHEESECAKES, SWEET GRILLED CHEESE, MELTING POT FONDUEIMG_5060-cheesecakes-etc-ok

COCKTAIL MENU

It also has a cute, special, colorful, ring-bound cocktail menuIMG_5062-cover-cocktails-ok

IMG_5063-cocktail-1-ok

IMG_5064-cocktail-2-ok

IMG_5066-cocktail-3-ok

IMG_5067-cocktail-4-ok

This Molito branch opened in 2017. Here are its operating hours: IMG_5061-operating hrs-ok

Melt also has an outlet located at the 3/F Uptown Place Mall, 9th Avenue corner 36th Street, Bonifacio Global City, Taguig City, open from 11 am till 10 pm daily, with mobile contact number 0917-8924377. It opened in 2016. I was told that another branch will open in EDSA Shangri-la sometime 2019.

And now for my dining experience at MeltMolito:

The entrance is facing the lighted four-tiered tiled waterfall and you cannot miss this restaurant since its name is well-lit as well, and can be seen from afar at night.   IMG_5047-facade-Melt-x

It has glass walls so you can satisfy your curiosity and look at the interiors, especially its high ceiling. BeFunky-collage-interiors-ok

We were warmly greeted by smiling wait staff, and led to a table with a combination of cushioned seats and comfortable wooden seats with good back rests. There are round tables with yellow upholstered chairs for four, or rectangular tables for 6-8.

BeFunky-collage-tables-okI wonder why the chairs with the round table are yellow? LOL

The spacious and cozy dining area is U-shaped, with a long middle portion featuring a marble counter with bar stools.IMG_5075-bar-ok

To the bar’s left is the entrance to the unisex rest room which is well-maintained and well-stocked.

The interior temperature was just right, even on a hot and humid early evening. The wait staff was very professional and cheerful, and expertly suggested options.

Deciding what to order with companions on a no-sugar, low-carb diet was difficult, until we all decided to cheat for that dinner. Yes!

We ordered the following and found them Instagram-worthy:

1.TRUFFLE CHEESE FRIES (PHP290) – This is a favorite of my 7-year-old grandson. After tasting it, it is also my favorite.What with its melted mozzarella, cheddar cheese and truffles, served with bacon bits and sour cream? Quite a satisfying appetizer!

IMG_5209-truffle fries

2. MELTING POT FONDUE (PHP485) – Of course, we had to order Melt’s house blend of melted cheese, served in a heated pot, with grilled sausages and chicken. The cheese was so creamy, and with the grilled meat, was a winner! NOTE: My niece requested the regular order of gnocchi and marbled potatoes to be replaced with grilled chicken, and it was! See how they are very accommodating? Our verdict: it was delicious!

IMG_5206-fondue-ok

3. BACON MAC & GRILLED CHEESE (PHP395) – This grilled cheese was definitely a treat for us. The maple-glazed bacon strips and 3-cheese mac and cheese were sandwiched between slices of grilled-smoked and buttered sourdough bread, that, when drizzled with maple syrup, was so good! The sweet potatoes were crispy, and along with the sandwich, resulted in a very satisfying dish.

Mouthwatering, generous, overflowing melted cheeseBeFunky-collage-swich-ok

4. WINEY CHICK (PHP380) – This grilled paprika chicken dish has pesto mashed sweet potato with melted mozzarella, string beans, and wine-infused demi-glaze. The tender chicken, with all the different tastes and textures, was enjoyable.

IMG_5070-use-ok

The men in my group ordered San Miguel Pale Pilsen (PHP90) and San Miguel Light (PHP90), and the drinks were served well-chilled.

I looked around the table while waiting for our orders. I noticed a small square box of MEALTIME PRAYERS. This is great for religious customers, or perhaps, for a family with kids. A kid who is able to read could be asked to choose a prayer and read it for all to hear before eating. Nice touch for families with kids!IMG_5091-prayer-ok

Melt also offers something for those on a date. It has CHEESY DATE QUESTIONS you can ask each other while waiting for your orders. Cheesy indeed! IMG_5092-date-questions-ok

My group wanted the dessert in the nearby restaurant called Souv!2 – the Crumbled Baklava Frozen Greek Yogurt and Wildflower Honey Frozen Greek Yogurt (PHP165 each).

IMG_5080 -cropped-dessert-souv-ok

We asked the wait staff if this was possible and you know what? They easily complied, hurriedly went next door to Souv2, brought the menu card for us to see, got our orders, and after a while, served our orders, and got our payment. Now that is genuine pampering! Thanks to the wait staff of Melt!

BeFunky-collage-souv-dessert-ok

Here is our verdict re Souv’s frozen Greek yogurt: The orders were served in a paper coffee cup, which reminds me of the classic New York cup.

We loved the Crumbled Baklava Frozen Greek Yogurt. It was SOUV-ery satisfying with its combination of textures and flavors. The Wildflower Honey version was SOUV-ery creamy and just right in terms of sweetness.

The service is definitely very good in MeltMolito. The orders are served at the right temperature and as promised (I asked how long the wait would be and they did serve on time thereafter).

Some people might find this restaurant pricey so, dearest Seniors, do not forget to bring your Senior Citizen IDs. Please check prices with the restaurant before visiting this restaurant.

Cheese is like a comfort food for me so this is definitely a cheat meal, but was guilt-free. Melt made our tummies happy!

So, cheese lovers, especially for those going on a date, why not indulge in this restaurant?

I will come back and try their other cheesey and interesting offerings, on another cheat day, like The Big Buff, Burrata!, Butternut Squash Soup, Good Morning Chorizo, Angus and Cheese, Pot Roast Cheese Toast, Risotto Balls, Truffle Pasta, Chocolate Chip Oreo Cheesecake, and Dulce de LeCheese.

Contact information: Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/meltgrilledcheesery; Instagram:https://www.instagram.com/meltgrilledcheesery/

This is not a sponsored post. I paid for my visit in this restaurant.

Did you find this post informative? Did you also dine in Melt-Molito? I would like to hear from you. Simply scroll to “Leave a Reply” and enter your comment in the box. Please scroll and click the “Like” tab and “Facebook” to share this post. Do not forget to follow me by clicking “Follow” on the lower right corner of your device.

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1Molito Commercial Complex is a lifestyle center located in the heart of suburban Alabang, at Madrigal Avenue corner Commerce Avenue, in Muntinlupa City. It opened sometime 2017 and offers spacious relaxing ambiance and layout to chill with family and friends, especially at the end of a stressful workday. It hasa refreshing water fountain area, trees and greenery, al fresco tables and chairs, and hassle-free parking. There are so many establishments to choose from:

Dining Establishments (cuisine/specialty)

  1. Brera Delicatessen (European, American)
  2. Bungalow Café (coffee)
  3. BurgerGeek (Burgers + Sides + Shakes)
  4. Canton Club (Chinese)
  5. Chairman Wang’s Prime Beef Noodle House (Chinese)
  6. Chichario Peri Peri (Latin American)
  7. Chow King (Chinese fastfood)
  8. DBCafé by Designer Blooms (coffee)
  9. Designer Blooms Café (Asian, coffee)
  10. El Cocinero (Mediterranean, Italian, Spanish)
  11. Exchange Alley Coffee House (coffee)
  12. Fiftea (beverage shop, tea)
  13. Frankie’s New York Buffalo Wings (American)
  14. Group & Boiler Coffee Co. (coffee)
  15. Hen Lin (Chinese, dimsum)
  16. Jollibee (sandwiches, chicken, fastfood)
  17. Just Thai (Thai)
  18. McDonald’s Desserts (ice cream)
  19. Manam (Filipino, coffee)
  20. Mang Inasal
  21. Melt Grilled Cheesery (American)
  22. Miyazaki (Japanese)
  23. Park’s Bread & Cake (bakery, café)
  24. Nana & Co. (European, desserts, ice cream)
  25. Nathaniel’s (buko pandan, bakery, desserts, Filipino)
  26. Omakase (Japanese, sushi)
  27. Ooma (Japanese, sushi)
  28. Pancake House (American)
  29. Paper Moon Tokyo (café, bakery)
  30. Parmigiano Pizzeria Ristorante (Italian)
  31. Pepi Cubano (sandwiches)
  32. Ramen Yushoken (Japanese, ramen)
  33. Recovery Food (Filipino)
  34. Rocky Mountain Chocolate Factory (desserts, coffee)
  35. Souv! By Cyma (Greek, healthy food)
  36. Starbucks (coffee)
  37. Thomson Road Chinese Bistro (Chinese)
  38. Torch (Italian, American, Spanish, ribs and steaks)
  39. Un Cuenca (Spanish)
  40. Wooden Horse (steak)
  41. Yoree Korean Barbeque Dining (Koran, barbecue)
  42. Yushoken Ramen (Japanese, ramen)
  43. Zubu Chon (Cebu lechon, Filipino)

Bars and Drinks Shops (specialty)

  1. Barcino Wine Resto Bar (Spanish, bar)
  2. Draft Gastropub and European Food (American, Asian, European, bar)
  3. Perfect Pint (Filipino, Italian, Spanish, bar)
  4. Ralph’s Wines & Spirits (wine bar, international)

Banks

  1. Bank of Commerce
  2. BDO
  3. Citibank (ATM)
  4. HSBC, Metrobank
  5. Robinsons Bank
  6. Security Bank

Other Services

  1. Acts Manila (ballet, dance and music school)
  2. Alter Station (garments alteration)
  3. Cebuana Lhuillier (pawnshop)
  4. CopyTown (xerox, printing and digital services)
  5. Eye Level (learning center)
  6. Galerie Roberto (art gallery)
  7. Gran Trail Cycles (bicycle shop)
  8. Habitat Crossfit (fitness gym)
  9. Kumon (learning center)
  10. Philam Life (insurance company)
  11. Puregood (supermarket)
  12. Re/Max Real Estate Associates (real estate)
  13. Santis Delicatessen (deli store)
  14. 7-Eleven(convenience store)
  15. Sip & Gogh (paint and sip studio)
  16. Smart (mobile network)
  17. TechnoPop! (cell phone accessory store)
  18. The Playground (sporting goods store)
  19. Titan(basketball specialty store)
  20. Tokyo Healthlink (medical and diagnostic center)

Contact information: (02) 808-6401; Website: www.molito.com.ph for the map, layout of the establishments, promos and events, features and contact page; Instagram: #MolitoLifestyleCenter; FB/Twitter:MolitoAlabangPH; Tumblr: molitolifestylealabang

2Souv! is a Greek restaurant which specializes in spit-fired meat, and a member of the Cyma restaurant group of Chef Robby Goco. The term is short for “souvlaki”, grilled Greek skewered meats.

Turning Japanese at Omakase

LOCATION: Connecticut Carpark Arcade, Greenhills Shopping Center, Ortigas Avenue, Greenhills, San Juan City, Philippines

Omakase is a Japanese restaurant owned by brothers-in-law Ed Encisa, a former chef in a Japanese restaurant abroad, and Rico Rosales. After the September 11, 2001 attacks, homesick Ed seriously considered going back to the Philippines. They then came up with the plan to start a business during one of their conversations, the needed push for Ed to finally go home.1

The term omakase is Japanese for “I’ll leave it up to you”, from makaseru, Japanese meaning “to entrust”. This term is used by patrons of sushi2 restaurants to leave the selection to the chef, as opposed to ordering a la carte.  Customers who order omakase-style expect the chef to be innovative and surprising in the selection of dishes, and the meal can be likened to an artistic performance by the chef. The information was obtained from the Wikipedia page “Omakasa”.3

They started with a small takeout counter in Quezon City in 2002, serving three kinds of maki4 at affordable prices for office workers and students.The counter eventually became known for its affordable sushi2 rolls. Ed and Rico initially split the capital of PHP80,000.1

After six months, Omakase expanded its space for dining tables. Prices were slightly increased until daily earnings spiked to PHP10,000. After a year, their relatives chipped in to open the first restaurant in Libis, Quezon City (now closed).1

Ed continued to concoct different sushi2 rolls, ebi5 tempura6 with salmon skin, salmon with cream cheese, and deep-fried soft-shell maki4.1

Omakase eventually opened branches in:

  1. Ayala Triangle Gardens, Paseo de Roxas Street corner Makati Avenue corner Ayala Avenue, Makati City (now closed)
  2. ESJ Building, Mayor Gil Fernando Avenue, San Roque, Marikina City
  3. Molito Complex, Madrigal Avenue, Ayala Alabang, Muntinlupa City
  4. 3/F, Ayala Malls Feliz, Dela Paz, Pasig City
  5. G/F, Banawe Lifestyle Center, Banawe corner Don Manuel Agregado Street, Sto. Domingo, Banawe, Quezon City
  6. G/F. Il Terrazo Mall, Tomas Morato Avenue, Diliman, Quezon City – Tel. No.: (02) 332-4115
  7. Pwesto Community Mall, 56 Holy Spirit Drive, Don Antonio Heights, Quezon City – Tel. No.: (02) 285-9089
  8. Connecticut Carpark Arcade, Greenhills Shopping Center, Ortigas Avenue, Greenhills, San Juan City (this is the branch I recently visited and will blog about)

The Greenhills branch is open from 11 AM to 10 PM.

greenhills.com.phPhoto from http://www.greenhills.com.ph

It offers a wide variety of Japanese dishes as well as set meals and party trays. Hot, cold, alcoholic and non-alcoholic beverages are available too. The menu card has 22 pages, with inviting colored pictures of its specialties!

Here are the specific dishes offered (pictures from menu card):

APPETIZERS IMG_5008-appetizers

SALADS IMG_5011-ok

SOUPS AND NOODLES 

IMG _5033-SOUPS-ok

SUSHIIMG_5013-sushi-ok

MAKIMONOIMG_5016-makimono-1-ok

IMG_5017-makimono-2-ok

MAIN DISHES IMG_5019-ok

TEMPURA6, FURAI8 AND DONBURIIMG_5020-ok

SET MEALS, PARTY TRAYS, DESSERTS IMG_5023-ok

SIDE ORDERS, BEVERAGES IMG_5025-ok

Omakase is also promoting the Torikatsu Sandwich, served with coffee and fries on the side as well as Kani Mango Sandwich. Perhaps, I will taste them on my next visit. IMG_5006-promo-ok

Omakase-Greenhills also offers Buffet Packages and Cart Catering

IMG_5026-ok

IMG_5027-ok

My husband, my son, and I, accompanied a niece and her 7-year-old son to Greenhills. For our dining experience on May 2019 – we ordered:

1.SEAFOOD TEPPAN (PHP 470) – A seafood platter consisting of pan-fried salmon, tuna, shrimps, and squid. It was served with garlic rice. This order can be shared by 2-3 persons and the tasty seafood was enjoyed by all the members of my group. The seafood was fresh and served hot for us to savor with the accompanying dipping sauce.

IMG_5030-ok

2. MISO SOUP (PHP65 per single serving) – This soup was served hot, tasty, a bit creamy, and is not salty.

3. EBI5 TEMPURA6 (Shrimp Tempura, PHP370 for 5 pieces) – This crispy, coated, deep-fried shrimp dish is a staple order in any Japanese restaurant. I found the shrimps small, based on the selling price. I also wished that the dip had more daikon10.

IMG_5032-ok

4. GYUDON (PHP305) – This donburi9 dish consists of sliced beef, mushrooms, onions over rice, topped with an egg, served on a bowl. We asked for two orders. It was served hot and the amount of rice was very generous. The beef was tender and the accompanying onions and mushrooms cooked with the beef made this dish more enjoyable.

IMG_5028

5. CHICKEN TERIYAKI (240) – This order consists of grilled chicken, cooked in teriyaki sauce, a favorite of our dearest 7-year-old grandson. I personally find the serving portion a bit small. However, it was very tasty and well appreciated by our 7-year-old kid. The proof? He finished it all! Bottomline, Omakase dishes are also good for kids.

IMG_5029-ok

We arrived sometime 7:00 PM and the main dining area at the second floor was already full. The place looked a bit old but well-maintained.

Fortunately, the smaller function room at the ground floor was available and that was where we dined. We were asked to wait a bit at the second floor, go over the menu card, and after about 10 minutes, we were ushered to the function room below. It was clean, tables were set, ventilation was comfortable, and the room smelled good.

I must say that the wait staff was accommodating despite the large number of guests at the upper floor and the function room was soon fully occupied. Our additional orders were a bit delayed but were worth the wait.

The prices are reasonable, and we got discounts with our Senior Citizen IDs. Cash and credit cards are accepted. Please check prices before visiting this restaurant.

I did not have the chance to visit their rest room so I cannot comment on this matter.

By the way, Omakase is now available on GrabFood11 so you can have your favorite Japanese dishes delivered to your doorstep!12

Contact information: Telephone Number: (02) 470-9807 (table booking is recommended); Cellphone Number: +63 9302523575; Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/iloveomakase; Twitter/Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/iwantomakase

This is not a sponsored post. I paid for my visit in this restaurant.

Pictures used in the cover picture collage were obtained from the menu card of Omakase Greenhills (starting from top right, clockwise): Sushi Cake, Seafood Yeppan, Tuna Tataki Salad, Mixed Nigiri and Salmon Sashimi

Did you find this post informative? Did you also dine in Omakase? Which branch? I would like to hear from you. Simply scroll to “Leave a Reply” and enter your comment in the box. Please scroll and click the “Like” tab and “Facebook” to share this post. Do not forget to follow me by clicking “Follow” on the lower right corner of your device.

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The following terms are defined for interested readers, especially those not familiar with Japanese and Filipino terms, those with “Senior-Moments”, and those too busy or lazy to Google such terms:

1https://news.abs-cbn.com/business/07/15/16/meet-the-pinoys-behind-omakase

2Sushi is a Japanese dish made of specially prepared vinegared (medium grain white rice or brown) rice, usually with some sugar and rice, combined with a variety of ingredients (e.g., raw/cooked seafood, vegetables, tropical fruits), served as an appetizer or as a main dish. Fillings, toppings, condiments (shoyu16, wasabi18, Japanese-style mayonnaise) and preparation vary widely. The information was obtained from Wikipedia page “Sushi”.13

3“Omakase,” accessed May 9, 2019, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Omakase

4Maki, short for makizushi, is rolled sushi2 formed into a cylindrical piece using a bamboo mat called a makisu. It is generally wrapped in nori (dried seaweed) then cut into 6 or 8 pieces, for a single roll order. Information is according to Wikipedia page “Sushi”.13

5Ebi is the Japanese term for shrimp. Thus, ebi tempura is shrimp tempura6.

6Tempura is a Japanese dish, usually consisting of seafood (e.g., shrimp, squid rings) or vegetables (e.g., strips of carrot, eggplant, onion) that have been battered and deep fried. It is eaten hot immediately after frying, and may be sprinkled with powdered green tea and sea salt, or yuzu and salt, before eating. It is commonly served with tentsuyu sauce (about 3 parts dashi14, 1 part each of mirin15 and shoyu16) and grated daikon10. The information was obtained from Wikipedia page “Tempura”.17

7Makimono, makizushi, or norimaki is a kind of “rolled sushi2”, according to the Wikipedia page “Sushi”.13 It is called maki4, for short. Makimono is Japanese for “rolled thing”.

8Furai is a Japanese dish made of deep-fried fish, shrimp or seafood, coated with a thin layer of panko (Japanese breadcrumbs), and served with a tangy sauce.19

9Donburi is a Japanese rice bowl dish consisting of fish, meat, vegetables, and other ingredients simmered together and served over rice. It is sometimes shortened to “don”. Information is according to Wikipedia page “Donburi”.21

10Daikon, literally “big root,” is a mild-flavored winter radish. It is originally native to Southeast or continental Asia. The information was obtained from the Wikipedia page “Daikon”.20

11GrabFood is a service of Grab, a Singaporean transportation network company operating in the Philippines, which allows (as of May 2019)  BGC, Makati, Mandaluyong, Manila, Ortigas, Pasay, Quezon City, and San Juan residents to satisfy their food cravings, by delivering orders from their favorite restaurants daily, except holidays, from 9 am – 9 pm. It is so easy: through your cell phone, launch the Grab app and select “Food” from the product selection menu at the top of the app, enter your delivery address, select your favorite restaurant (within a given distance from your location for speedy deliveries, for now), select a meal, add to your basket (no minimum purchase), complete your order, wait for an assigned GrabFood delivery partner to pick up your orders for you, and deliver it to your doorsteps.22

12https://www.facebook.com/weloveomakase/

13“Sushi,” accessed July 5, 2018, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sushi

14Dashi is a class of soup and cooking stock used in Japanese cuisine. The most common form of dashi is a simple broth or fish stock made by heating water containing kombu (edible kelp) and kezurikatsuo (shavings of katsuobushi – preserved, fermented skipjack tuna. It forms the base for miso soup, clear broth, noodle broth, and many kinds of simmering liquid. It can also be mixed into flour base of some grilled foods. The information was obtained from the Wikipedia page “Dashi”.23

15Mirin is an essential condiment used in Japanese cuisine. It is a type of rice wine, similar to sake, but with a lower alcohol content and higher sugar content. The information was obtained from the Wikipedia page “Mirin”.24

16Shoyu is the Japanese term for soy sauce, according to the Wikipedia page “Soy sauce”.25

17“Tempura,” accessed January 4, 2019, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tempura

18Wasabi is the green, highly pungent, paste served as a Japanese condiment for sushi2 and sashimi26, made from the wasabi plant.

19https://pogogi.com/japanese-deep-fry-furai-little-cousin-tempura-and-tonkatsu

20“Daikon,” accessed July 5, 2018, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Daikon

21“Donburi,” accessed July 5, 2018, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Donburi

22https://www.grab.com/ph/food/

23“Dashi,” accessed July 5, 2018, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dashi

24“Mirin,” accessed July 5, 2018, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mirin

25“Soy sauce,” accessed July 5, 2018, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Soy_sauce

26Sashimi is a Japanese dish consisting of thinly sliced, fresh, raw fish or meat, often served as the first course in a formal Japanese meal but may also be served as the main course. It is garnished with long thin strands of daikon (white radish) or single leaves of the shiso herb (perilla). It is served with soy sauce as a dipping sauce, along with condiments – wasabi paste (the hot Japanese green paste made from the wasabi rhizome), grated fresh ginger, and ponzu (Japanese dipping sauce made of fish flakes, lime juice, soy sauce and vinegar). The information was obtained from Wikipedia page “Sashimi”.27

27“Sashimi,” accessed January 4, 2019, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sashimi

Always A Happy Tummy at Hossein’s!

Hossein’s Persian Kebab is a favorite cheat place for me and my companions every time we go to Metro Manila1.

hosseinPhoto from: https://www.facebook.com/hosseinspersiankebab/photos/a.226129307478327/1138618449562737/?type=1&theater

This restaurant specializes in halal2 Persian, Arabian, Indian, Iranian, and Eastern Mediterranean3cuisine. It is one of the first Middle Eastern4 cuisine restaurants in the Philippines.

Chef Hossein Sohrabi is the person behind Hossein’s. He wanted to showcase his Persian culture and history as well as his family’s traditions, adding his own modern twist, along with Arabian, Indian, Mediterranean5 and South Asian6 specialties.

IMG_4877 - CopyChef Hossein Sohrabi (Photo from:  https://www.facebook.com/hosseinspersiankebab/photos/a.226129307478327/1138618449562737/?type=1&theater)

He established his first restaurant – Hossein’s Persian Kebab – in 1985 on Jupiter Street, in Makati City, with just three tables. He was the cook, the wait staff, the marketing department, the dishwasher, and the janitor, all at once. He would be cooking the orders in front of his guests, and serving it to their table. Then, after his guests have finished eating, he would clear the tables, buss the dishes, and wash them once he gets to the sink. He had burned hands from grilling kebabs, cut hands from slicing garnishes, bruised hands from washing dishes, and body aches from carrying supplies – all in a day’s work. No one in Metro Manila then knew what kebab was, or if there even was a market for it. He just did what he loved to do, seven days a week, 364 days a year.

He later moved to the ground floor of LKV Building in Makati Avenue which is now Habibi7, his shisha8 bar. The second floor, renovated in March 2018, became the main restaurant, with his son as architect. The walls of the stairs leading to the second floor has a Persian rug design, painted by a British painter.9

There are now has six outlets in Metro Manila1, all open daily from 11 AM till 12 MN:

  1. MAKATI AVENUE – 2/F 7857 LKV Building, Makati Avenue (right across Burgos Street), Makati City – Tel. (02) 890-6137, 890-5928; Fax (02) 890-5803
  2. MAKATI AVENUE – HABIBI SHISHA BAR – 1/F, 7857 LKV Building, Makati Avenue (right across Burgos Street), Makati City – Tel. (02) 890-9174, Fax (02) 890-5803
  3. GREENBELT – 2nd Level, Greenbelt 3 (above Starbucks), Ayala Center, Makati Avenue, Makati City – Tel. (02) 729-0266; Fax (02) 729-0267
  4. SERENDRA – 2nd Level, C-201 Serendra, Bonifacio High Street (in front of Fully Booked), Bonifacio Global City, Taguig City – Tel (02) 856-0632, 856-1278; Fax (02) 916-0056
  5. TRINOMA – Unit 4005, Level 4, Trinoma Mall, EDSA North Avenue, Quezon City – Tel (02) 901-5613
  6. ALABANG – Unit F &B007, Cluster 2, The Street, Alabang Town Center, Muntinlupa City – Tel (02) 511-8899

977924_460542687370320_823213007_oPhoto taken from: https://www.facebook.com/hosseinspersiankebab/photos/a.438484959576093/460542687370320/?type=3&theater

I have dined in three outlets (Makati Avenue, Greenbelt and Serendra) and all my dining experiences were satisfying, but my favorite is the Makati Avenue branch at the second floor (see above).

Let me share with you my latest dining experience (May 2019).

My group of five decided to have an early dinner to meet up with a relative later in the evening in Makati so we sped to the said branch. Parking was available in front of the building because we came early. IMG_4899-ok

Use the side stairs to go to the 2/F dining areaIMG_4898-ok

IMG_4900-ok

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We went up the stairs and upon entry, we were greeted and ushered to a comfortable table for five with very good ventilation on a hot and humid late afternoon.

The interiors, lighting fixtures and decorations show the Middle Eastern4 influences and exude a very relaxed dining experience.BeFunky-collage-1-interiors-ok

IMG_4908-okThe bar, Hossein’s Persian Kebab, Makati Avenue

The layout of the dining area allows for intimate dining for pairs and groups of 4-6.BeFunky-collage-2-interiors-ok

We were given menu cards and let me share with you the menu (pictures taken from the menu card):

APPETIZERS – MEZZE10IMG_4878-appetizers-ok

SALADS, SOUPS, BREADIMG_4879-soups-salads-bread-ok

KEBAB11 SPECIALTIES

IMG_4882-kebab-ok

CHELOU12 SPECIALTIESIMG_4884-chelou-ok

MIDDLE EASTERN4 SPECIALTIES AND RICE SPECIALTIESIMG_4886-ME Specialties-ok

CURRY AND SOUTH ASIAN6 SPECIALTIESIMG_4887-Curry-South-Asian-1-ok

IMG_4888-Curry-South-Asian-2-ok

SANDWICHES AND SHAWARMA,13  BEVERAGES, SHAKES AND JUICESIMG_4889-SW-Shawarma-ok

DESSERTS, TEA AND COFFEE1-desserts-tea-coffee

ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES

1-bevs

We selected a relatively light meal, in anticipation of more food to follow when we meet up with our relative. Two of the members of the group were dieting – low carb and no sugar– but were willing to cheat a bit so we ordered:

1.Roti Channai, a Malaysian puffed sweet bread, served with a special sauce made with a blend of Indian spices (PHP 140 each)

IMG_4897-bead-okSorry, 1/4 of the roti was already taken before I could take a picture.

OMG! I am so in love with this flaky, moist flatbread, and that is why we had three orders! It was served hot, and after you pull a piece and dip it in the sauce, it was so satisfying. Its texture – a combination of soft, flaky layers with crisp-chewy parts, along with the delightfully sweet-oily taste is enough for me to eat it plain – without a dip. The dip is like icing on the cake for me. You need to try this, trust Tita S!

2. Mega Kebab I, a chelou12 specialty which is a Persian kebab11 platter consisting of 2 sticks each of beef kubideh14, beef shish kebab15, chicken kebab, with grilled tomatoes on the side, and served on a bed of biryani16and saffron rice (PHP1,755)

IMG_4896-kebabs-ok

This order is ideal for a group of four to five people, depending on your level of hunger and other orders. The beef and chicken kebabs were so tasty, tender, and cooked just right. The combination of rice and grilled tomatoes with small amounts of grilled onions complemented the kebabs to the max!

3. Tabbouleh, the customary Syrian salad made of a mélange of bulgur17, delicately chopped parsley, and diced tomatoes, dressed with lemon juice and olive oil (PHP525, family size) 

IMG_2416-ok

This bulgur-vegetable dish was so refreshing with just the right amount of dressing. This is a wonderful side order with any kebab11 choice in this restaurant.

A male member of the group ordered two bottles of San Miguel Beer (PHP108 per bottle), all served well chilled.

You might find this restaurant a bit pricey but it is worth it. So indulge when you can, treat yourself, you deserve it! And, do not forget your senior citizen cards for your discount! Please check prices with the restaurant before visiting this restaurant.

The service was very professional. Orders were served as promised, at the right temperature, and with appropriate accompaniments. Water glasses were immediately refilled.

I went to the restroom and it was well-maintained and well-stocked, with good water pressure, and smelled really good. There is a separate cubicle for males and females.

The bill was promptly presented upon request and our senior discounts were deducted.

Bottomline, I recommend Hossein’s for (dieting or cheating) seniors and non-seniors! I counted their dishes and it totaled 251, along with 66 kinds of beverages, so there is definitely a dish and a drink for everyone! Absolutely a happy tummy always!

Information and some pictures were obtained from the website: www.hosseins.com and https://www.facebook.com/hosseinspersiankebab/

This is not a sponsored post. I paid for all my visits in the different branches of this restaurant.

Did you find this post informative? Do you also dine at Hossein’s? What outlet/s do you frequent? I would like to hear from you. Simply scroll to “Leave a Reply” and enter your comment in the box. Please scroll and click the “Like” tab and “Facebook” to share this post. Do not forget to follow me by clicking “Follow” on the lower right corner of your device.

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The following terms are defined for interested readers, especially non-Filipinos, those with “Senior-Moments”, and those too busy or lazy to Google such terms:

 1Metro Manila is the official and administrative urban area in the southwestern portion of Luzon surrounding Manila, established in 1975. It is the center of culture, economy, education and government of the Philippines. The information was obtained from the Wikipedia page “Metro Manila”.19

2Halal is the Arabic word which means “permissible” in English, with food particularly prepared in accordance to Islamic law, especially meat processed and prepared in accordance with those requirements (e.g., Allah’s name must be pronounced during slaughter; the animal must not be unconscious; the animal must have been fed a natural diet that did not contain animal by-products; the instrument must be very sharp to ensure humane slaughter and the animal must be slit at the throat; the animal must be hung upside down and allowed to bleed dry; eating blood is not halal). These steps must be accomplished by a Muslim or the People of the Book (Christian or Jew).20, 21

3Eastern Mediterranean countries are geographically to the east of the Mediterranean Sea, and include Cyprus, Egypt, Greece, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Libya, Palestine, Syria, and Turkey. The information was obtained from the Wikipedia page “Eastern Mediterranean”.22

4Middle East is a transcontinental region centered on Western Asia23, Turkey and Egypt. It consists of the following countries: Bahrain, Cyprus, Egypt, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Oman, Palestine, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Turkey, United Arab Emirates, and Yemen. The information was obtained from the Wikipedia page “Middle East”.24

5The Mediterranean countries are those that surround the Mediterranean Sea. Southern Europe25, the Levant26 and North Africa27 regions border the Mediterranean, in addition to two island nations – Cyprus and Malta. Here are the countries and territories bordering the Mediterranean Sea: (1) Southern European coast: Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, France, Gibraltar, Greece, Italy, Malta, Monaco, Montenegro, Slovenia, Spain, and Turkey; (2) Levantine coast: Cyprus, Israel, Lebanon, Palestine (Gaza Strip), and Syria; (3) Northern African coast: Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Morocco, and Tunisia. The information was obtained from the Wikipedia page “List of Mediterranean countries”.28

6South Asia, or Southern Asia, is the term used to represent the southern region of the Asian continent, bounded on the south by the Indian Ocean, and on land (clockwise, from the west) by West Asia23, Central Asia29, East Asia30, and Southeast Asia31. It consists of the territories of Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Maldives, Nepal, India, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka. The information was obtained from the Wikipedia page “South Asia”.32

7The term habibi is an Arabic term that literally means “my love”, but sometimes translated as “my dear,” “my darling,” or “beloved”.33

8Shisha is the term used in the Arab Peninsula (Algeria, Bahrain, Kuwait, Morocco, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Tunesia, UAE, Yemen), Egypt, Sudan, Austria, Germany, Switzerland, by the Moroccan immigrants in Spain, and the Arab and Indian communities in Southeast Asia32) for the single- or multi-stemmed waterpipe used to vaporize and smoke flavored tobacco, where vapor or smoke is passed through a water basin, often glass-based, before inhalation. People in the Arab world and the Middle East4 smoke these waterpipes as part of their culture and traditions, Social smoking is held during parties, small get-togethers, and in (Middle Eastern) cafés. Hookah is the Indian term for shisha. The information was obtained from the Wikipedia page “Hookah”.34  (I will insert 2 pics from Wiki here and give proper credit)

9www.primer.com.ph/food/cuisines/indian/hosseins-persian-kebab-in-makati

10A meze, mezze, or mezza, is a selection of small dishes served as appetizers in parts of the Middle East4 (as a multi-course meal), the Balkans35 and Greece (as snacks while drinking or talking), and North Africa27. It is generally accompanied by distilled drinks like arak, mastika, ouzo, raki, rakia, or tsipouro. It may also be consumed with beer, wine and other alcoholic drinks. The information was obtained from the Wikipedia page “Meze”.36

11Kebabs are various cooked, skewered or not skewered, (cut up or ground) meat (or seafood) dishes, sometimes with fruits and vegetables, with origins in Middle Eastern4 cuisine, with variants throughout Asia and even worldwide. In the Muslim world, a kebab is any of a wide variety of grilled (cooked on a skewer over fire) meat dishes. It can also be grilled, baked in a pan in an oven, or as a stew, and served with various accompaniments. It is traditionally made of mutton, but regional variations use beef, goat, chicken, or fish. The information was obtained from the Wikipedia page “Kebab”.37

12Chelou, or chelow kebab, is an Iranian dish consisting of cooked rice and one of many varieties of kebab11. It is considered the national dish of Iran. It is served with accompaniments such as butter, sumac powder, basil, onions, and grilled tomatoes. The traditional beverage which accompanies chelou is doogh, an Iranian yogurt-based drink, sometimes made of carbonated water. The information was obtained from the Wikipedia page “Chelow kebab”.38

13Shawarma is a Middle Eastern4 meat preparation based on the Turkish döner kebab39, originally made of seasoned mutton. Modern versions are also made of beef, chicken, turkey or veal, cut into thin slices, and stacked in a cone-like shape on a vertical rotisserie. Thin slices are shaved off the cooked surface as it continuously rotates. Spices added include cardamom, cinnamon, cumin, paprika and turmeric. It is commonly served as a sandwich or wrap, in a flatbread such as pita40 or laffa41, often garnished with diced tomatoes, cucumbers, and onions, pickled vegetables, and tahini42 sauce or amba43 mango sauce. Some restaurants may offer additional toppings like grilled peppers, eggplant, or French fries. The information was obtained from the Wikipedia page “Shawarma”.44

14Kabab kubideh/koobideh/kubide is an Iranian meat kebab11 made from ground lamb or beef, and less commonly chicken, often mixed with parsley and chopped onions. Salt, garlic, black pepper, celery powder, sumac, very finely grated onion and one egg yolk per pound of meat are added. All ingredients are mixed, covered, and left to marinate in the refrigerator for at least 4 hours or overnight. It is then grilled on skewers, traditionally over hot coals, and is served with polo (Iranian rice pilaf with oil, salt and saffron), accompanied by grilled tomatoes and onions. Sumac (a reddish-purple powder for a tart, lemony taste) is usually served as a tableside garnishing spice. The information was obtained from the Wikipedia page “Kabab kubideh”.45

15Shish kebab is a type of Middle Eastern kebab11traditionally made of grilled cubes of lamb, with other versions like beef, veal, swordfish, and chicken meat. The information was obtained from the Wikipedia page “Shish kebab”.46

16Biryani, biriyani, biriani, birani, or briyani, is a mixed rice dish of the Muslims made of Indian spices, rice, meat (beef, chicken, fish, goat, or prawn), vegetables, or eggs, with regional differences. The condiments and spices used may include ghee (clarified butter), bay leaves, cardamom, cinnamon, cloves, coriander, garlic, ginger, green chili, mace, mint leaves, nutmeg, onion, pepper, saffron, and tomato. The dish consists of two layers of rice with a layer of meat (or vegetables) in the middle. The information was obtained from the Wikipedia page “Biryani”.47

17Bulgur is a cereal food made from the cracked parboiled groats of several different wheat species, most often with durum wheat, with a light, nutty flavor. It originated in Middle Eastern4 cuisine. It is a common ingredient in cuisines of many countries of the Middle East and Mediterranean5. It does not require cooking, although it can be included in cooked dishes; soaking in water is all that is needed. The information was obtained from the Wikipedia page “Bulgur”.48

19“Metro Manila,” accessed May 9, 2019,https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Metro_Manila

20“Halal,” accessed May 9, 2019, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Halal

21https://www.thekitchn.com/good-question-what-is-halal-me-60979

22“Eastern Mediterranean,” accessed January 4, 2019, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eastern_Mediterranean

23Western Asia includes Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bahrain, Cyprus, Georgia, Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Oman, Palestine, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Turkey, United Arab Emirates, and Yemen. The information was obtained from the Wikipedia page “Western Asia”.49

24“Middle East,” accessed January 4, 2019, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Middle_East

25Southern Europe, or Mediterranean Europe, is the southern region of the European continent, consisting of Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Corsica, Croatia, Cyprus, Gibraltar, the East Thrace of European Turkey, Greece, Italy, Malta, Montenegro, Slovenia, and Spain. Andorra, North Macedonia, Portugal, San Marino, Serbia, and the Vatican City are also often included, despite not having a coast in the Mediterranean. It can also include mainland Southern France and Monaco, which are otherwise considered parts of Western Europe. The information was obtained from the Wikipedia page “Southern Europe”.50

26 The Levant refers to a large area in the Eastern Mediterranean3, primarily in Western Asia23. The information was obtained from the Wikipedia page “Levant”.51

27North Africa is a region encompassing the northern portion of the African continent. There is no singularly accepted scope for the region, but the most commonly accepted coverage includes Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Morocco, Sudan, and Tunisia. The information was obtained from the Wikipedia page “North Africa”.52

28 “List of Mediterranean countries,” accessed January 4, 2019, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Mediterranean_countries

29Central Asia is a region which stretches from the Caspian Sea in the west to China in the east, and from Afghanistan in the south to Russia in the north. It consists of the former Soviet republics of Kazakhstan, Kyrgystan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan. It is also colloquially referred to as “The Stans” as the countries generally considered to be within the region all have names ending with the Persian suffix “-stan”, meaning “land of”. The information was obtained from the Wikipedia page “Central Asia”.53

30East Asia is the eastern subregion of Asia, defined in either geographical or ethno-cultural terms to include China, Japan, (North and South) Korea, Vietnam, geographically and geopolitically to also include Hong Kong, Macau, Taiwan, and Mongolia. The information was obtained from the Wikipedia page “East Asia”.54

31Southeast Asia, or Southeast Asia, is a sub-region of Asia, consisting of the countries that are geographically south of China and Japan, east of India, west of Papua New Guinea, and north of Australia. It is bordered to the north by East Asia30, to the west by South Asia6 and the Bay of Bengal, to the east of Oceania and the Pacific Ocean, and to the south by Australia and the Indian Ocean. It consists of 11 states (Brunei, Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, Timor Leste, and Vietnam), two Australian external dependencies (Christmas Island and Cocos/Keeling Islands), and two internal dependencies (Andaman and Nicobar Islands of India). The information was obtained from the Wikipedia page “Southeast Asia”.55

32“South Asia,” accessed May 9, 2019, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/South_Asia

33https://www.dictionary.com/e/slang/habibi/

34“Hookah,” accessed May 9, 2019, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hookah

35The Balkans is a term used more generally for the region, including states in the region, which may extend beyond the peninsula, and is not defined by the geography of the peninsula itself. The Balkans are usually said to comprise Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Greece, Kosovo, Montenegro, North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, and Slovenia. The information was obtained from the Wikipedia page “Balkans”.56

36“Meze,”accessed May 9, 2019, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Meze

37“Kebab,”accessed January 4, 2019, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kebab

38“Chelow kebab,” accessed May 9, 2019, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chelow_kabab

39Döner Kebab is a type of Turkish kebab11 made of seasoned meat cooked on a vertical rotisserie. The outer layer is sliced into thin shavings as it cooks. The sliced meat may be served on a plate with various accompaniments, stuffed into a pita40 or other type of bread as a sandwich, or wrapped in a thin flatbread such as lavash57 or yufka58. It inspired similar dishes like the Arab shawarma13, Greek gyros59, and the Mexican al pastor60. The information was obtained from the Wikipedia page “Döner Kebab”.61

 40Pita is a Middle Eastern4 family of yeast-leavened round flatbreads baked from wheat flour, also common in neighboring areas. It is used to scoop sauces or dips, such as hummus62, or to wrap kebabs11, gyros59, or falafel63, in the manner of sandwiches. The information was obtained from the Wikipedia page “Pita”.64

41Laffa, or taboon bread, is a Middle Eastern4 flatbread, traditionally baked in a taboon oven or a tannur, and is similar to the various tandoor breads in many parts of Asia. It is of medium thickness, slightly chewy, and does not tear easily. It is used as a base or wrap in many cuisines, and eaten with different accompaniments. It is a staple in Middle Eastern cuisine worldwide. The information was obtained from the Wikipedia page “Taboon bread”.65

42Tahini is a condiment made from toasted, ground, hulled sesame seeds. It is served by itself as a dip, or as a major ingredient in baba ghanoush66, halva67, and hummus62. Tahini-based sauces are common in Middle Eastern4 restaurants as a side dish or as a garnish, usually including lemon juice, salt and garlic, and thinned with water. The sauce is also a popular topping for meat and vegetables in Middle Eastern cuisine. It is used in cuisines of the Eastern Mediterranean3, the South Caucasus68, as well as parts of North Africa27. It is also used in Chinese and Southeast Asian55 cuisine. The information was obtained from the Wikipedia page “Tahini”.69

43Amba, or anba, is a tangy mango pickle condiment popular in Indian and Middle Eastern4 cuisine, particularly Iraqi, Israeli and Saudi cuisines. It is typically made of mangoes, vinegar, salt, mustard, turmeric, chili and fenugreek, similar to mango chutney. The information was obtained from the Wikipedia page “Amba (condiment)”.70

44“Shawarma,” accessed January 4, 2019, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shawarma

45 “Kabab kubideh,” accessed May 9, 2019, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kabab_kubideh

46 “Shish kebab,” accessed May 9, 2019, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shish_kebab

47“Biryani,” accessed May 9, 2019, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biryani

48“Bulgur,” accessed January 4, 2019, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bulgur

49“Western Asia,” accessed May 9, 2019, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Western_Asia

50“Southern Europe,” accessed January 4, 2019, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Southern_Europe

51“Levant,” accessed January 4, 2019, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Levant

52“North Africa,” accessed January 4, 2019, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/North_Africa

53“Central Asia,” accessed May 9, 2019, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Central_Asia

54“East Asia,” accessed May 9, 2019, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/East_Asia

55“Southeast Asia,” accessed May 9, 2019, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Southeast_Asia

56“Balkans,” accessed January 4, 2019, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Balkans

57Lavash is a soft, thin, Armenian unleavened flatbread made in a tandoor (a cylindrical metal oven) and also eaten all over Azerbaijan, Iran and Turkey. It is made with flour, water and salt. The thickness of the bread varies, depending on how thin it was rolled out. Toasted sesame seeds and poppy seeds are sometimes sprinkled before baking. The information was obtained from the Wikipedia page “Lavash”.71

58Yufka is a thin, round and unleavened flat bread in Turkish cuisine, similar to lavash57, usually made from wheat flour, water and salt. It is about 18 inches (40-50 cm) in diameter. The sheets of yufka dough are baked on a heated iron plate called a sac for about 2-3 minutes, turned over once to brown the other side. Before consumption, dry yufka bread is sprayed with warm water. The moistened bread is covered with a cotton cloth and is rested for 10-12 minutes before serving. The information was obtained from the Wikipedia page “Yufka”.72

59Gyro, or gyros, is a Greek dish made from meat (pork, chicken, ground beef, mutton, or veal), cooked on a vertical rotisserie, similar to shawarma13 (of the Middle East4). The roasted meat is sliced vertically in thin, crisp shavings when done. It is generally served wrapped or stuffed in a lightly grilled flatbread (like pita40), and rolled up with sliced tomatoes, chopped onions, tzatziki73 sauce, and sometimes, French fries. The information was obtained from the Wikipedia page “Gyro (food)”.74

60Al pastor, or tacos al pastor, is the Mexican version of Turkish döner kebab39 and the Greek gyros59. It is a pork dish developed in central Mexico that is based on shawarma13 spit-grilled meat, brought by Lebanese immigrants to Mexico. Al pastor literally means “shepherd style” in Spanish. The information was obtained from the Wikipedia page “Al pastor”.75

61“Döner Kebab,” accessed January 4, 2019, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Döner_kebab

 62Hummus is the classic Middle Eastern4 chickpea and sesame dip or spread. Cooked or mashed chickpeas or other beans are blended with tahini42, olive oil, lemon juice, salt and garlic. It is also popular in the Mediterranean5. It is rich in protein, fiber, B vitamins and minerals like manganese. The information was obtained from the Wikipedia page “Hummus”.76

63Falafel is a Levantine77 and Egyptian deep-fried ball, or a flat or doughnut-shaped patty, made from ground chickpeas, fava beans, or both, commonly eaten in Western Asia23, most likely originated in Egypt. Herbs, spices, and onion relatives are commonly added to the dough of this vegetarian dish, considered a street food. The balls are commonly served in a pita40, laid over a bed of salad or pickled vegetables, and drizzled with hot sauce or a tahini42-based sauce. It can also be wrapped in a flatbread called a taboon. It can be eaten alone as a snack, or served as part of an assortment of appetizers called meze10. The information was obtained from the Wikipedia page “Falafel”.78

64“Pita,” accessed January 4, 2019, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pita

65“Taboon bread,” accessed January 4, 2019, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Taboon_bread

66Baba ghanoush, baba ganoush, or baba ghanouj, is a Levantine77 appetizer of mashed baked or broiled eggplant mixed with tahini42, olive oil, and various seasonings. It is a typical mezze10, often eaten as a dip with pita40 bread, and is sometimes added to other dishes. The information was obtained from the Wikipedia page “Baba ghanoush”.79

67Halva, halvah, or halwa, is any of various dense, sweet confections, mostly made in the Middle East4, Central Asia29, and the Indian subcontinent80. It could be flour-based, made by frying flour (such as semolina, cornstarch, and rice flour) on oil (like clarified butter or ghee), mixing it into a roux, and cooking it with a sugary syrup, very popular in Afghanistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Greece, India, Iran, Pakistan, Somalia, and Turkey. It could also be crumbly and nut butter-based, usually made from tahini42 or other nut butters such as sesame and sunflower, and sugar. Halva can also be based on other ingredients like beans, lentils and vegetables, like carrots, pumpkins, squashes, and yams. The information was obtained from the Wikipedia page “Halva”.81

68The South Caucasus is a geographical region in the southern Caucasus Mountains on the border of Eastern Europe82 and Western Asia49. It roughly corresponds to modern Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia. The information was obtained from the Wikipedia page “South Causasus”.83

69“Tahini,” accessed January 4, 2019, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tahini

70“Amba (condiment),” accessed January 4, 2019, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amba_(condiment)

71“Lavash,” accessed January 4, 2019, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lavash

72“Yufka,” accessed January 4, 2019, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yufka

73Tzatziki, cacik, or tarator, is a dip, soup, or sauce found in the cuisines of Southeast Europe25 and the Middle East4. It is made of salted strained yogurt or diluted yogurt, mixed with cucumbers, garlic, salt, olive oil, sometimes with vinegar or lemon juice, and herbs such as dill, mint, parsley and thyme. It is generally served as a cold appetizer (meze10) or a side dish. The information was obtained from the Wikipedia page “Tzatziki”.84

74“Gyro (food),” accessed January 4, 2019, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gyro_(food)

75“Al pastor,” accessed January 4, 2019, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Al_pastor

76“Hummus,” accessed January 4, 2019, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hummus

77Levantine cuisine is the traditional cuisine of the Levant26 which covers a large area of the Eastern Mediterranean3. The most distinctive aspect of Levantine cuisine is meze10, including baba ghanoush66, hummus62 and tabbouleh85.The information was obtained from the Wikipedia page “Levantine cuisine”.86

78“Falafel,” accessed January 4, 2019, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Falafel

79“Baba ghanoush,” accessed May 9, 2019, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Baba_ghanoush

80The Indian subcontinent is a southern region and peninsula of Asia, delineated by the Himalayas in the north, the Hindu Kush87 in the west, and the Arakanese88 in the east. Politically, it includes Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka. The information was obtained from the Wikipedia page “Indian subcontinent”.89

81“Halva,” accessed January 4, 2019, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Halva

82Eastern Europe is the eastern part of the European continent, and although there is no common definition of its coverage, the United Nations’ Statistics Division included the following countries: Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Romania, Russian Federation, and Slovakia, as well as the republics of Belarus, Moldova, and Ukraine.90

83“South Caucasus,” accessed January 4, 2019, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/South_Caucasus

84“Tzatziki,” accessed January 4, 2019, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tzatziki

85Tabbouleh is a Lebanese and Syrian vegetarian salad made mostly of finely chopped parsley, tomatoes, onion, mint, (soaked, not cooked) bulgur17, and seasoned with olive oil, lemon juice, salt and pepper. Some variations add garlic or lettuce, or use couscous91, instead of bulgur. The information was obtained from the Wikipedia page “Tabbouleh”.92

86“Levantine cuisine,” accessed January 4, 2019, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Levantine_cuisine

87Hindu Kush is an 800-km-long mountain range that stretches near the Afghan-Pakistan border, from central Afghanistan to northern Pakistan, according to the Wikipedia page “Hindu Kush”.93

88The Arakan Mountains, or the Rakhine Mountains, are a mountain range in western Myanmar, according to the Wikipedia page “Arakan Mountains”.94

89“Indian subcontinent,” accessed January 4, 2019, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indian_subcontinent

90http://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Eastern_Europe

91Couscous is a Maghrebi95 dish made of (3 mm or 0.12 in.) small steamed balls from crushed durum wheat semonila, traditionally served with a stew spooned on top. It is a staple food throughout the North African27 cuisines of Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, and Tunisia. The information was obtained from the Wikipedia page “Couscous”.96

92“Tabbouleh,”accessed January 4, 2019, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tabbouleh

93“Hindu Kush,” accessed May 9, 2019, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hindu_Kush

94“Arakan Mountains,” accessed January 4, 2019, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arakan_Mountains

95The Maghrebi is a major region of North Africa27 that consists primarily of Algeria, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, and Tunisia. It is also called Northwest Africa, Northern Africa, Greater Arab Maghreb, Arab Maghreb, Greater Maghreb, the Berber world, Barbary, or Berberry. It additionally includes the disputed territories of Western Sahara (mostly controlled by Morocco), and the cities of Ceuta and Melilla (both controlled by Spain and claimed by Morocco). The information was obtained from the Wikipedia page “Maghrebi”.97

96“Couscous,” accessed January 4, 2019, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Couscous

97“Maghrebi,” accessed January 4, 2019, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maghrebi